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Cockade of Prussia as we have always known it, originates from the distinctive headgear emblem introduced in 1806-1807 for Prussian defenders of Silesia by its Deputy Governor-General Obrist-Lieutenant Friedrich Wilhelm von Götzen der Jüngere (20.01.1767-29.02.1820). Shortly after it moved to headgear of other army units, from Prussia as well as from other German states. As for the prototype of the Prussian cockade, it was that of the Napoleon Bonaparte's French troops, the latter being introduced during the French Revolution. For the sake of justice, it should be said that military fashion of the early 1800s was generally dominated by the image of Napoleon Bonaparte. The tall shako used by the French and their allies was copied by nearly all the armies of Europe, and Prussia was no exception to this tradition as it developed a tall leather and felt shako after the French pattern.
Arm badge of a skilled signaller, or “Abzeichen für die im Gebrauch der Winkerflaggen ausgebildeten Unteroffiziere und Mannschaften” in full, that had to be worn by personnel of signals troops was initially described by the Instruction No.379 of January 27, 1903 (Vorschrift für den Gebrauch der Winkerflaggen). Every signals troop (Signaltrupp) that was raised within ranks of every company consisted of two soldiers under command of a NCO. Their main task was to transmit signals, messages and orders based on Morse code during combat and sentry duty.
Legal status of Prussian doctors in times of warfare was particularly regulated by Section 626 of the Prussian Civil Code. It specifically stipulated that all contract commitments with draft-age doctors after announcement of a general mobilization are declared terminated indefinitely in order to meet the requirements of Field forces in medical officers. Those not liable to conscription but still willing to serve their Fatherland were allowed to enroll on a voluntary basis in Landsturm units raised at the place of their residence.
Uniform and equipment of Prussian Landwehr cavalry officers (Landwehr-Kavallerie-Offiziere) was regulated by the Supreme Cabinet Order (Allerhöchste Kabinettsorder) of April 11, 1868. The tunic (Waffenrock) of line Infantry was introduced but traditional cuffs were changed to those of Lancers. Upper and front parts of stand-up collar as well as cuffs had a
Close to the end of the Great War around 2,4 million prisoners of war from 13 countries were held captive in German camps. Despite unrestrained Allied propaganda German military administration devoted sufficient attention to their fate and establishing of more or less acceptable conditions for officers and soldiers in POW camps was not the least of its concerns.
Headgear commemorative badges that were extremely popular with Austro-Hungarian military personnel (Kappenabzeichen) were forbidden in the Imperial German army, but two exceptions did exist. Cap badges of the Alpine and Carpathian Corps were the only badges officially authorized for wear by soldiers and officers during the Great War.
Additional metal cockade in the shape of a “death’s head”, i.e. skull with jawbone and crossed long-bones as a traditional symbol of fearlessness in front of death was authorized to be worn by the ranks of the Braunschweigisches Husaren-Regiment Nr.17 on September 17, 1883. As the regiment did not receive their “Landeskokarde” in state colours (i.e. blue with a yellow ring) until 1897, only round Prussian one was worn on a cap band while Totenkopf cockade was attached to a cap top.
The earliest distinctions for proficient musketry proven by other ranks and NCOs from Prussian infantry and rifle regiments as well as from Jäger and Pionier battalions were instituted by a Supreme Cabinet Order (Allerhöchste Kabinetts-Order, AKO) from April 25, 1850. Those awards came in three classes only and were sewn on both sleeves. They had a shape of horizontal stripes (Litzen) of the state colour: white
Для армии Королевства Вюртемберг 1864-1871 годы ознаменовались учреждением униформы принципиально нового образца, что было во многом мотивировано политическими соображениями пришедшего к власти нового монарха. В данном материале описывается малоизвестная страница истории униформы последних лет существования независимой вюртембергской армии.
As a rule abbreviations of special designations (Zusätze) were placed after rank titles to distinguish those officers from their colleagues on the active duty list (aktive Offiziere) including three special categories, i.e. medical officers (Sanitätsoffiziere), veterinary officers (Veterinäroffiziere) and ordnance officers (Waffenoffiziere).
Table of ranks being a formal list of positions in government, military and court of the Kingdom of Württemberg divided into 10 grades (Stufen) precisely regulated the seniority within officer corps and officials and offered strict sequence for promotion in rank in the middle of XIX century. Lists of ranks in each grade are supplemented in this material with later additions that were introduced in 1821-1841 (where applicable).
Machine gun sniper sleeve badge being not a decoration but a specialists’ insignia was instituted in the kingdom of Prussia on February 08, 1916. Its wear was authorized by separate orders of three other kingdoms, Württemberg (on February 16, 1916), Saxony (on February 17, 1916) and Bavaria (on February 19, 1916).
Горняцкое дело в немецких государствах имеет многовековые традиции, и в каждом из них, начиная с XVII века, имелись собственные формы одежды и знаки различия рудокопов и чиновников. С учетом того, что основной задачей нашего сайта является помощь в максимально точной идентификации персонажей, запечатленных на фотографиях, мы не будем касаться униформы, сведения о которой дошли лишь в форме гравюр, картин и описаний.
Collar insignia consisting of metallic numerals and letters was nearly the only detail of Landsturm uniform that can give a hint in identification of a unit. Nevertheless vague implementation of army orders and various non-regulatory changes sometimes make this task nearly impossible without respective stamps on the reverse of a photo.
Two ranks corresponded to officer candidates, i.e. Fahnriche in the Imperial German army, that of Portepeefähnrich (later just Fähnrich) and Degenfähnrich. Moreover an article won’t be complete without mentioning junior grade of aspirants – Fahnenjunker.
В данном материале приводится общая информация о знаках различия рядового, унтер-офицерского и офицерского составов регулярных частей германской армии.
Униформа и знаки различия кандидатов в офицеры – фаненюнкеров и фенрихов – здесь не рассматриваются и описаны в отдельном материале. В отличие от униформы, система знаков различия нижних чинов и унтер-офицеров армии Второго рейха была достаточно сложной и в своем роде уникальной, существенно отличаясь от других европейских армий.
Fundamentally new headgear aimed to safeguard frontline soldiers from head wounds was badly needed by German military personnel as at the very beginning of the Great War combatants were issued only with spiked helmets designed to protect against saber cuts and small splinters. Those old fashioned Pickelhelms introduced in 1842 were nearly useless in modern especially trench warfare and the number of casualties from shrapnel and gunfire rose drastically.
Landsturm, or Home guard militia as an additional source of manpower during the war was initially created by a decree of the King of Prussia Friedrich Wilhelm III on April 21, 1813. Thus it didn’t exist during time of peace and its personnel was recruited only after the declaration of war. In fact Landsturm didn’t exist before the Great War with an exception of paper drill. The most distinctive element of Landsturm uniform worn only by their members was an oilcloth cap that came in various forms.
The “Gibraltar” cuff-title, the only commemorative Imperial cuff-title was instituted by the German emperor Wilhelm II on January 24, 1901 and was issued to the personnel regardless of rank of three units – Füsilier Regiment General Feldmarschall Prinz Albrecht von Preußen (Hannoversches) Nr.73, Infanterie-Regiment Von Voigts-Rhetz (3.Hannoversches) Nr.79 and Hannoversches Jäger-Bataillon Nr.10.
Instituted by the last ruler of the Austro-Hungarian Empire Karl I as a special decoration for combat bravery of military personnel of the German IV Reserve Corps that fought under the command of the Austro-Hungarian 7th Army in Carpathians and Bukovina against Russian forces. Carpathian Corps was its official designation from July 24, 1916 to December 12, 1917.