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На заре отечественной авиации

At the Dawn of Soviet Aviation

Joseph Soud

This article was originally published in the "Soviet Collector" magazine, 1983, No.21 under the heading "Phaleristics" (pp.131-141). Translated by Andrew Kostin (antique-photos.com).

DOBROLYOT, UKRVOZDUKHPUT AND AEROFLOT

Permanent Council on Civil Aviation was established in the newly formed USSR on February 09, 1923 on initiative of Vladimir Lenin, the first leader of the Soviet Union. Next steps aimed at strengthening of the still immature Soviet aeronautics were creation of the Russian Society of Voluntary Air Fleet – "Dobrolyot" (Российское Общество Добровольного воздушного флота, "Добролет"), Ukrainian Society of Airways – "Ukrvozdukhput" (Украинское акционерное общество воздушных сообщений, "Укрвоздухпуть" or "Укрповiтряшлях") and Transcaucasian Society of Air Transport (Закавказское общество воздушных сообщений, "Закавиа"). Those bodies formed the basis for the mighty civil aviation of the Soviet Union. Later on they merged into the All-Union Association of the Civil Air Fleet that in its turn was reorganized into the Chief Directorate of the Civil Air Fleet under the Council of Peoples' Commissars in 1932. It was then that the name "Aeroflot" ("Аэрофлот") emerged. Chief Directorate of the Civil Air Fleet was subsequently elevated to the Ministry of Civil Aviation. Inaugural flight by Dobrolyot from Moscow to Nizhniy Novgorod took place on July 15, 1923, Junkers F13 aircraft being piloted by famous aviator Yakov Moiseev (18.08.1897-28.12.1968).
On April 28, 1933 the Council of Peoples' Commissars proclaimed Civil Aviation Day to be celebrated annually as a token of recognition of achievements of the Soviet aviation during the first five-year plan. The day had been celebrated on August 18, 1933 for the first time. The Day of Aeroflot is also celebrated on the second Sunday of each February since 1979.

1. Badge of the Dobrolyot (Знак Добролета). 5 mm wide rim measuring 37 mm in diameter is made of cogwheel and ear of wheat joined by the superimposed abbreviation "USSR" ("CCCP") at the top. Sickle and hammer emblem is superimposed on the rim, while inscription "Dobrolyot" ("Добролет") as well as monoplane with a wingspan of 20 mm – on that emblem. Wings are covered with red and fuselage with dark blue or black enamel. Capital letters "Д" and "Л" are placed on wings. Screw back attachment. Badges are made of hallmarked gold; hallmarked silver; hallmarked silver rim with gilt monoplane and both abbreviations.

2. Emblem of the Dobrolyot (Эмблема Добролета). The badge in the shape of an airplane measuring 35x23 mm. Wings and tail assembly are covered with red, while fuselage with dark blue enamel (variation with black enamel is known to exist as well). Capital letters "Д" and "Л" are placed on wings. Bronze, screw back attachment.

3. Same as No.2 but measuring 21x16 mm. Screw back attachment. Bronze and hallmarked silver.

4. Emblem of the Dobrolyot placed on a circular badge, the latter being covered with pearl enamel. Diameter of badge is either 19, 16 or 10 mm. Different colors of an airplane, capital letters as well as of basic enamel are known to exist. Silver, screw back attachment.

5. Dark blue emblem of the Dobrolyot (15x19 mm) placed on a circular badge, the latter being covered with pearl enamel and measuring 24 mm in diameter. The badge is framed with a 2 mm wide rim covered with dark blue enamel and showing 16 five-point stars. Different colors of enamel are known to exist. Hallmarked silver, screw back attachment.

6. Emblem of the Dobrolyot placed in the middle of a diamond measuring 14x13 mm and covered with radiant white enamel. Wings and tail assembly are covered with red, while fuselage with dark blue enamel. Three variations of the badge differing in position of an airplane on the emblem are known to exist. Hallmarked silver, screw back attachment.

7. Emblem of the Dobrolyot (12x7 mm) placed in the centre of a salient horizontal oval badge measuring 48x20 mm and covered with radiant blue enamel. The whole badge is framed with a 1,5 mm wide red stripe. Airplane is of red color, letters "Д" and "Л" are black. Silver, safety pin attachment.

8. Light blue emblem of the Dobrolyot (15x9 mm) placed in the centre of a salient horizontal oval badge measuring 52x23 mm and covered with pearl enamel. Silvered bronze, screw back attachment.

9. Emblem of the Dobrolyot (11,5x8 mm) placed in the centre of a salient horizontal oval badge measuring 21x12 mm and covered with dark blue enamel. Fuselage is dark blue, wings and tail assembly are red, letters "Д" and "Л" are black. Silver, screw back attachment.

10. Badge "For 100,000 km Flown" of the Dobrolyot ("За налет 100 тыс. км", Добролет). The badge of a salient shape is made of the red banner inscribed "USSR" ("CCCP") on top and "Dobrolyot" ("Добролет") at the bottom (left) and laurel branch (right). Black enameled aircraft flying above the dark blue enameled peak with white enameled top imitating snow is superimposed against blue background on the centre of the badge. Decoration is topped with red enameled five-point star. Sickle and hammer join the banner. Inscription "100,000 km" ("100000 км.") is superimposed in semi-circle on the lower right part of the central medallion, while name and initials of the awardee are found on the laurel branch. Gold, hot enamel, screw back attachment.

11. Badge "For 100,000 km Flown" of the Ukrpovitryashlyakh ("За налет 100 000 км", Укрповiтряшлях). Dark blue enameled rim measuring 20 mm in diameter and bearing inscription in Ukrainian: "100,000 km" ("100 000 кiлометрiв"). Monoplane with a wingspan of 34 mm and abbreviation on a right wing "UPSh" ("УПШ") is superimposed on a rim. Gold, screw back attachment.

12. Emblem of the Ukrpovitryashlyakh (Значок-эмблема УПШ). Monoplane with a wingspan of 35 mm and 35 mm long fuselage. Right wings bears abbreviation "UPSh" ("УПШ"). Silver, pin attachment.

13. Badge of the Ukrvozdukhput (Значок "Укрвоздухпуть"). Pressed pentagon with each side measuring 16 mm. Five-point star with its radiant rays illuming terrestrial map is placed at the upper angle. Monoplane is situated at the centre of the badge, inscription "Ukrvozdukhput" ("Укрвоздухпуть") – at the bottom. Brass, pin attachment.

14. Emblem of the Soviet-Swedish Airline "Moscow-Riga-Stockholm" (Эмблема советско-шведской авиалинии "Москва-Рига-Стокгольм"). Two-engine aircraft with a wingspan of 36 mm and three-lobed propellers. Silvered brass, pin attachment.

15. Emblem of Aeroflot (Значок-эмблема Аэрофлота). Circular badge measuring 22 mm in diameter is covered with dark blue enamel and shows flag of the Aeroflot. Lower part of the badge shows 2,5 mm wide red-enameled ribbon bearing an inscription "GVF of the USSR" ("ГВФ СССР"). Bronze, screw back attachment.

BADGES FOR FLOWN DISTANCES

The very first statute of the badge "For ... km Flown" was instituted on December 13, 1935 by the Order of the Chief Directorate of the Civil Air Fleet No.891. It was altered on November 05, 1938 by the Order No.1134: the badge "For 800,000 km Flown" was replaced with the badge "For 1,000,000 km Flown". After jet airplanes have been introduced on Soviet air routes, design of badges for flown distances was changed a bit and type of aircraft was changed to Tu-104. Eduard Shwarz (23.02.1893-27.09.1977) was the first Soviet aviator who covered 300,000 km, Nikolay Shebanov (1899-1953) set record of one million km flown, Vasily Monakhov became the first flight mechanic who covered one million km (1938).
Come 1963, two unique decorations were introduced: "For 2,000,000 km Flown" and "For 3,300,000 km Flown". Those badges were presented to Soviet cosmonauts Valentina Tereshkova and Valery Bykovsky on June 27, 1963 by Evgeniy Loginov, the head of the Aeroflot, at the Central Television Studio during "Star Relay of Cosmonauts" TV programme.

16. "For 300,000 km Flown", 1935 issue ("За налет 300 тыс. км" образца 1935 г.). Salient globe measuring 21 mm in diameter entwined with laurel leaves (25 mm in diameter) mounted on nine flying stylized flags covered with blue enamel (32 mm in diameter). Leaves at the bottom are tied crosswise with red enameled ribbon. Another 2 mm wide red enameled ribbon bearing an inscription "300,000 km" ("300 тыс. км") is placed on the globe. Abbreviation "GVF" ("ГВФ") is situated above, together with a superimposed emblem of the Aeroflot with a wingspan of 15 mm. Twin-engine ANT-9 airplane with a wingspan of 40 mm is situated in the centre of the badge. Hallmarked silver, screw back attachment.

17. "For 500,000 km Flown", 1935 issue ("За налет 500 тыс. км" образца 1935 г.). Same as No.16 but flags are covered with dark blue enamel, globe is gilt. Inscription on the ribbon reads "500,000 km" ("500 тыс. км").

18. "For 300,000 km Flown", 1938 issue ("За налет 300 тыс. км" образца 1938 г.). Same as No.16 but flags, globe, wreath and Aeroflot emblem measure 37, 22, 28 and 15 mm, respectively. Ribbon is 3 mm wide, wingspan of PS-89 aircraft measures 41 mm.

19. "For 800,000 km Flown", 1935 issue ("За налет 800 тыс. км" образца 1935 г.). Same as No.16 but inscription on the ribbon reads "800,000 km" ("800 тыс. км").

20. "For 500,000 km Flown", 1938 issue ("За налет 500 тыс. км" образца 1938 г.). Same as No.19 but flags are covered with dark blue enamel, parts of the badge are gilt. Inscription on the ribbon reads "500,000 km" ("500 тыс. км").

21. "For 1,000,000 km Flown", 1938 issue ("За налет 1 млн. км" образца 1938 г.). The badge measuring 41x31 mm represents a composition made of salient globe covered with white transparent enamel and flanked with laurel branches and flags of the Aeroflot (left) and the USSR (right). 4mm wide red enameled ribbon inscribed "1,000,000 km" ("1000 000 клм") is placed at the bottom. Map of the USSR bearing inscription "USSR" ("CCCP") and showing air routes is covered with red enamel and is placed at the centre of the badge. Abbreviation "GVF" ("ГВФ") is placed at the bottom of the globe. PS-89 passenger aircraft with a wingspan of 38 mm is superimposed on the upper portion of the globe. Hallmarked silver, screw back attachment.

22. "For 300,000 km Flown", pattern ("За налет 300 тыс. км" пробный). Same as No.19, but 1 mm bigger. Silvered bronze, screw back attachment.

23. "For 300,000 km Flown", pattern ("За налет 300 тыс. км" пробный). Salient globe measuring 21 mm in diameter entwined with laurel leaves (23 mm in diameter) mounted on nine flying stylized flags covered with dark blue enamel (38 mm in diameter). Leaves at the bottom are tied crosswise with red enameled ribbon. Another 4 mm wide red enameled ribbon bearing an inscription "300,000 km" ("300 т. кил") is placed on the globe. Abbreviation "GVF" ("ГВФ") is situated above, together with a superimposed emblem of the Aeroflot with a wingspan of 17,5 mm. Aircraft with a wingspan of 41 mm is situated in the centre of the badge. Silvered bronze, screw back attachment.

24. "For 500,000 km Flown", pattern ("За налет 500 тыс. км" пробный). Same as No.23, but flags are covered with light blue enamel, and flagstaffs are shorter. Inscription on the ribbon reads "500,000 km" ("500 т. кил"). Silvered bronze, screw back attachment.

25. "For 800,000 km Flown", pattern ("За налет 800 тыс. км" пробный). Same as No.24, but flags are covered with turquoise enamel. Inscription on the ribbon reads "800,000 km" ("800 т. кил"). Silvered bronze, screw back attachment.

26. "High Achiever of the Aeroflot", 1938 issue ("Отличник Аэрофлота" образца 1938 г.). The badge was initially introduced in 1937 and its first statute was instituted according to the order of the Chief Directorate of the Civil Air Fleet No.1134 of November 05, 1938. Decoration was presented to the personnel of the Chief Directorate of the Civil Air Fleet who distinguished themselves in development of socialist emulation, Stakhanovite movement and record-setting in work productivity, efficiency drive and inventive acts, socio-political activities and support of good working performance. 36 high achievers were decorated with the badge in 1939, while altogether 17,000 decorations were presented within 35 years (up to 1973). The very first badge was issued to the Hero of the Soviet Union Volkan Goranov, alias of the renowned Bulgarian hero General Zakhari Zakhariev (04.02.1904-29.04.1987).
The badge measuring 39x32 mm shows globe flanked with laurel and oak leaves. An emblem of the Aeroflot with a wingspan of 32 mm is superimposed on the centre of the globe. Flying flags of the USSR and the Aeroflot covered with enamel top the badge. Red enameled ribbon inscribed "High Achiever of the Aeroflot" ("Отличник Аэрофлота") in two lines is placed at the bottom. Hallmarked silver or Bronze, screw back attachment.

27. "High Achiever of the Aeroflot", 1940 issue ("Отличник Аэрофлота" образца 1940 г.). Same as No.26 but measuring 30x26 mm. Bronze, screw back attachment.

28. "Competitions of the Aeroflot Skiers" ("Соревнования лыжников Аэрофлота"). Circular badge measuring 18 mm in diameter is covered with blue enamel. It shows images of an aircraft with a wingspan of 6 mm and skier wearing dark blue ski suit. Inscription "GVF" ("ГВФ") is situated at the left, "1937" – at the bottom. Bronze, screw back attachment.

AIRCRAFT INDUSTRY FACTORIES, TRADE UNIONS, SHOCK-WORKERS AND HIGH ACHIEVERS OF EMULATIONS

29. "To the Best Shock-Worker of the Chief Directorate of the Aviation Industry" ("Лучшему ударнику ГУАП"). Rectangular enameled badge measuring 18x13 mm showing "Maxim Gorky" aircraft against blue background. White stripe is placed at the right, dark blue stripes – above and below. Stripes are inscribed "To the Best Shock-Worker of the GUAP" ("Лучшему ударнику ГУАП"). Bronze, screw back attachment.

30. High Achiever of the Socialist Emulation of the People's Commissariat of Aviation Industry ("Отличник социалистического соревнования Народного комиссариата авиационной промышленности"). 2,5 mm wide dark blue enameled rim measuring 25 mm in diameter turns into two crossed flags of the Soviet Air Force. White enameled plate inscribed "NKAP" ("НКАП") tops the badge. Red enameled five-point star with distance between its edges worth 21 mm is superimposed on the centre of the badge. Roundish-shaped stylized airplane engine is superimposed on the centre of the star. It shows inscription "High Achiever" ("Отличник") and white enameled aircraft flying above roofs of factory buildings. The rim is inscribed "of the Socialist Emulation" ("Социалистического соревнования"). Bronze, screw back attachment.

31. "10 Years of the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI)" ("10 лет ЦАГИ"). Circular badge measuring 20 mm in diameter showing a man holding a model of monoplane above his head. Miniature factory buildings are placed at the bottom, three flying aircrafts are seen at the sky above. Semicircular abbreviation "TsAGI" ("ЦАГИ") in capital red letters is situated at the upper left part of the badge. Silver or Bronze. Screw back attachment.

32. "XV Years of the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI)" ("XV лет ЦАГИ"). Red enameled flag measuring 20x20 mm with 28 mm flagstaff is superimposed on a blue enameled circle measuring 23 mm in diameter. Flag has small silver five-point star at upper left corner and an image of a "Maxim Gorky" aircraft superimposed on its centre. Lower part of the circle carries inscription "XV Years of TsAGI" ("XV лет ЦАГИ"). Bronze or Silvered bronze, screw back attachment.

33. "Stakhanovite of the Stalin District" ("Стахановец Сталинского района"). The badge of a round shape measuring 23 mm in diameter is covered with light blue enamel and shows factory buildings as well as motor and horizontally placed propeller. The badge is topped with red enameled banner measuring 18x9 mm with inscription "Stakhanovite of the Stalin District" ("Стахановец Сталинского района") and white enameled five-point star at its upper left corner. The badge is worn suspended from a vertical oval bar measuring 14,5x12 mm and showing bust of Joseph Stalin facing right. Silvered bronze, screw back attachment on the bar.

34. "To the XVII Communist Party Congress Shock Worker" ("Ударнику им. XVII съезда ВКП(б)"). Circular badge measuring 30 mm in diameter is flanked with seven-pronged part of a cogwheel inscribed "Stalin District" ("Сталинский р-н") at the left. Factory buildings, hoisting crane and flying airplane are seen at the background of the badge. Electric motor, horizontal propeller and 11 mm high white enameled Roman number "XVII" are superimposed on the centre of the badge. Two flying red enameled banners inscribed "To the XVII Communist Party Congress Shock Worker" ("Ударнику им. съезда ВКП(б)") in two lines are placed above "XVII" number. The badge is worn suspended from a vertical oval bar measuring 14,5x12 mm and showing bust of Joseph Stalin facing right. Silvered bronze, screw back attachment on the bar.

35. "V Years of the State Institute for Projection of Aviation Plants" ("V лет Гипроавиа"). Cogwheel measuring 24 mm in diameter joins crossed triangular ruler, T-square and a pair of compasses at the bottom. Catheti of triangular ruler bear inscription "Giproavia 1932-1937" ("Гипроавиа 1932-1937") separated with the small five-point star. Factory buildings against light blue enameled background are situated at the centre of the badge. Red enameled airplane with a wingspan of 20 mm is placed at the top of the badge, 12 mm high white enameled Roman numeral "V" is superimposed at the bottom. Bronze, screw back attachment.

36. "20 Years to the Dimitrov Plant" ("20 лет заводу им. Димитрова"). Badge of a rectangular shape measuring 37x27 mm is divided diagonally into two parts covered with red (left) and light blue (right) enamel. Red enameled portion bears inscription "20 Years" ("20 лет") running in two lines, while light blue enameled one is inscribed "Dimitrov Plant" ("зав.им. Димитрова") in three lines. Seaplane with a wingspan of 58 mm and sporting red enameled five-point stars on its wings is superimposed on the centre of the badge. Right wing of a seaplane is inscribed "USSR" ("СССР"). Bronze, screw back attachment.

37. "Stalin Plant No.19" ("Завод № 19 им. Сталина"). Salient circular badge measuring 25 or 53 mm in diameter is encircled with a 4 mm dark blue enameled rim inscribed "U.S.S.R. N.K.T.P. Stalin Plant No.19" ("С.С.С.Р. Н.К.Т.П. Завод № 19 им. Сталина"). Inscription is separated with a red enameled five-point star at the top. Red enameled aircraft is placed at the centre of the badge above light blue enameled background with blue continents. Bronze, screw back attachment.

38. "To the Personnel Officer of the Plant No.20" ("Кадровику завода 20"). Badge measuring 37x25 mm shows a composition made of seven-cylinder radial aircraft engine with blue enameled shield topped with seven-pronged cogwheel. The latter bears inscription "To the Personnel Officer of the Plant No.20" ("Кадровику з-да 20"), while the shield is inscribed "Years" ("лет"). White enameled Roman numeral "V" measuring 30x25 mm each side being 5 mm thick is superimposed on the composition described above. Small red enameled five-point star is superimposed at the bottom of the numeral, while twin-engined monoplane with a wingspan of 25 mm is superimposed at the upper portion of the "V". Silvered bronze, aircraft is made of brass. Screw back attachment.

39. "Five Years to the Plant No.22" ("Пять лет заводу № 22"). The badge shows a 20 mm high red enameled Roman numeral "V" topped with a white enameled segment of a rim inscribed "1927-1932". Red enameled five-point star crowns the composition. Space between lower arc of the rim and inner sides of "V" is covered with dark blue enamel and bears inscription "Plant No.22" ("Завод 22") running in two lines. The word "Years" ("Лет") is situated at the bottom of the "V" numeral. Four-engined monoplane with a wingspan of 40 mm is superimposed on the centre of the badge. Silvered bronze, screw back attachment.

40. "Five Years of the Plant No.22" ("Пять лет заводу № 22"). Salient dark blue enameled circular badge measuring 22 mm in diameter. Aircraft with a wingspan of 26 mm is placed on the centre of the badge. 17 mm high red-enameled digit "5" is situated in the middle of the badge. Variation with superimposed "5" exists as well. Inscription "Years" ("лет") is at the right of the digit, number "22" is at the bottom. The badge is topped with red enameled five point star. Silvered bronze, screw back attachment.

41. "To the Old Personnel Officer of the Plant No.24" ("Старому кадровику завода 24"). Vertical diamond measuring 50x25 mm is covered with dark blue enamel and is topped with red enameled five-point star. Inscription "To the Old Personnel Officer" is placed at both upper sides of a diamond on 5 mm wide stripes. Aircraft V-engine inscribed "Frunze Plant No.24" ("Завод 24 им. Фрунзе") is superimposed at the bottom of the badge. Four-engined airplane with five-point star at endings of both wings is superimposed above engine. Badge is made of bronze, engine and aircraft are made of silvered brass. Screw back attachment.

42. "To the Long Serving Worker of the Frunze Plant" ("Кадровому фрунзенцу"). Same as No.41 but inscribed "To the Long Serving Worker of the Frunze Plant" ("Кадровому фрунзенцу") and bearing number of years the holder worked at the plant: 10, 15 or 20.

43. "To the Old Industrial Worker of the Plant No.24" ("Старому производственнику завода 24"). Circular badge measuring 40 mm in diameter inscribed "To the Old Industrial Worker" ("Старому производственнику") on the 2,5 mm wide red enameled rim. Aircraft engine is placed at the lower right part of the badge, flying monoplane with a wingspan of 33 mm is situated above. Red enameled five-point star with distance between its edges measuring 13 mm is placed at the centre of the badge against light blue background that bears inscription "Of the Plant No.24" ("завода 24") executed in two lines. Four 2 mm wide white enameled stripes are seen under the star. Silvered bronze, screw back attachment.

44. "Frunze Plant" ("Завод им. Фрунзе"). Salient enameled circular badge measuring 53 mm in diameter topped with five-point star covered with radiant red enamel. 7 mm dark blue enameled rim is inscribed "USSR NKAP. Frunze Plant" ("СССР НКАП. Завод им. Фрунзе"). Central part of the badge shows map of the northern hemisphere – white enameled ice on the Pole, light blue enameled sea and brown enameled islands and mainland. Flying red banner with sickle and hammer is placed above the North Pole. Bronze, screw back attachment.

45. "Five-Year Plan in 2¾ Years" ("5 в 2¾"). Enameled diamond measuring 35x25 mm. Red enameled propeller is placed lengthwise long diagonal, while green enameled sideview of a wing with interplane struts is placed lengthwise short one. White digit "5" and red fraction "2¾" are placed against light blue background with 0,8 mm wide white enameled stripes. Bronze, screw back attachment.

46. "To the Best Shock Worker of the Aircraft and Engine Building. Plant No.26" ("Лучшему ударнику авиамоторостроения. Завод № 26"). Horizontal oval badge measuring 42x38 mm is flanked with two laurel branches at the lower part. The main composition consists of a single-engined aircraft inscribed "USSR" ("CCCP") at the back portion of its fuselage superimposed on a red enameled five point star. The latter is placed on a red enameled banner measuring 36x20 mm and bearing three inscriptions: "USSR" ("CCCP") at the upper left corner; "To the Best Shock Worker" ("Лучшему ударнику") in two lines at the upper right corner; "5 Years" ("5 лет") at the lower right corner. White enameled background is inscribed "Of the Aircraft and Engine Building. Plant No.26" ("Авиамоторостроения. 3-д № 26") in two lines. Silvered bronze, screw back attachment.

47. "To the Best Shock Worker. Main Plant No.43" ("Лучшему ударнику. Головной завод 43"). The badge has a shape of a red enameled five-point star with distance between its edges measuring 34 mm. Blue-enameled circular medallion measuring 28 mm in diameter is superimposed on the centre of the star. Gyroplane with 29 mm airscrew is placed at the centre of medallion. The latter has a 3,5 mm wide rim inscribed "Plant No.43 To the Best Shock Worker Main" ("Завод 43. Лучшему ударнику головной"). Star is made of bronze, medallion and gyroplane are manufactured of silver. Screw back attachment.

48. "Trade Union of Transport Workers" ("Профсоюз транспортных рабочих"). The badge consists of a cogwheel measuring 30 mm in diameter and two crossed red enameled banners. The banner on the foreground bears inscription "PSTR USSR" ("ПСТР СССР") separated with a five-point star; the banner on the background shows sickle and hammer as well as date "1919". Cut-out horseshoe and winged propeller are situated below banners. Central medallion inside cogwheel shows removal man carrying load on his back, distance mark and wheeled prime mover with loaded cart. Tinned bronze, screw back attachment.

49. "Trade Union of Transport Workers" ("Профсоюз транспортных рабочих"). Same as No.48, but cogwheel measures 20 mm in diameter, horseshoe is not cut-out. Central medallion is covered with light rose radiant enamel and shows head of a horse with harness. Bronze, screw back attachment.

50. "Transport Workers to the Air Fleet" ("Транспортники – воздушному флоту"). The badge consists of an airplane with a wingspan of 30 mm, steam locomotive and anchor entwined with a rope. Wings of an aircraft are inscribed "USSR" ("CCCP") and bear five-point stars. Curved 4,5 mm wide ribbon, half-red, half-light blue is superimposed on the badge. It bears inscription "Transport Workers" ("Транспортники") on red enamel "to the Air Fleet" ("воздушному флоту") on light blue enamel. Brass, screw back attachment.

51. "Transport Workers to the Air Fleet" ("Транспортники – воздушному флоту"). The badge has a shape of a cut-out round shield circumscribed "U.S.S.R." ("С.С.С.Р.") above and "Transport Workers to the Air Fleet" ("Транспортники воздушному флоту") below. Train, truck and sailing ships are placed at the background, river being covered with blue enamel. Monoplane with a wingspan of 34 mm and bearing five-point stars on wings is superimposed on the centre of the badge. Brass, screw back attachment.

52. "Union of Drivers and Aviation Industry Workers" ("Союз рабочих-шоферов и авиаработников, СРШИА"). The badge measuring 27x23 mm consists of a green-enameled globe with meridians and parallels topped with red enameled curved ribbon inscribed "SRShIA" ("СРШИА") and red enameled five-point star. Images of a truck and flying aircraft are placed at the globe. Bronze, screw back attachment.

53. "Union of Workers of the Local Transport" ("Союз рабочих местного транспорта, СРМТ"). Irregular-shaped hexagon measures 21,5x21,5 mm. White enameled background is framed with 1,5 mm wide red enameled stripe. 5 mm wide red enameled ribbon inscribed "SRMT" ("СРМТ") is placed at the bottom. Removal man carrying load is situated at the centre of the badge, front part of a truck – at the right, head of a horse – at the left. Contour of a flying airplane is placed above the head of a horse. Bronze, screw back attachment.

54. "Union of Workers of Tractor and Aviation Industry" ("Союз работников автотракторной и авиационной промышленности, СРАТАП"). The badge has a shape of a salient dark blue enameled cogwheel measuring 31 mm in diameter, inscribed "Union RATAP" ("Союз РАТАП") and topped with a superimposed silvered monoplane with a wingspan of 28 mm. Caterpillar and passenger motor-car are placed inside a cogwheel against white enameled background. Bronze, screw back attachment.

55. "Union of Workers of Tractor and Aviation Industry" ("Союз работников автотракторной и авиационной промышленности"). The badge consists of a dark blue enameled cogwheel at the right and red enameled banner inscribed "RATAP" ("РАТАП") at the left. Aircraft with red enameled five point stars on wings that takes off is situated at the right upper corner of the badge. Wheeled tractor and truck are placed against light blue enameled background at the centre of the badge. Bronze, screw back attachment.

56. "All-Russian Union of Metalworkers" ("Всероссийский союз рабочих-металлистов, ВСРМ"). Oval badge measuring 27х21 mm shows industrial scenery including blast furnace, oil derricks, cogwheels, anvil, rails, etc. A worker holding propeller above his head is placed at the centre. Red enameled flag inscribed "VSRM" ("ВСРМ") as well as a plate inscribed "1917" are placed at the bottom. The badge is topped with the red enameled banner with inscription "Workers of the World, Unite!" ("Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь") in two lines. Screw back attachment. Known variations of the badge are made of silver; bronze; silver (without banner); brass (without banner).

57. Union of Communication Service Workers ("Союз работников связи"). Shield measuring 37x26 mm is topped with a red enameled five-point star and inscription "USSR" ("CCCP"). The badge is covered with dark blue and white enamel and shows the following images: envelope, telephone set, mail van, truck, radio tower and two airplanes. Inscription running in semi-circle reads: "S.R.Svyazi" ("С.Р.Связи"). Bronze, screw back attachment.

58. "Union of Communications" ("Союз связи"). Shield measuring either 14x29 mm or 34x27 mm shows the following images: antennas, transmission links, telephone receiver, white enameled envelope and aircraft. Abbreviation "USSR" ("CCCP") as well as red enameled sickle and hammer emblem are situated at the upper part of the badge. Vertical red enameled angular ribbon inscribed "Union of Communications" ("Союз связи") is placed at the centre of the badge. Bronze, screw back attachment. Variation of the badge manufactured of silver and engraved "To the Delegate of the IX Congress of the SR Communications USSR. 5/19 IV 25" ("Делегату IX съезда СР Связи СССР. 5/19 IV 25") is known to exist.

59. "To the Shock Worker of the Socialist Communications" ("Ударнику социалистической связи"). Badge of a complex shape measuring 41x26 mm and covered with light blue enamel shows a composition that consists of Shukhov radio tower, white enameled envelopes, operating key, phone dial, rushing steam locomotive and ear of wheat. Vertical red enameled angular ribbon inscribed "Union of Communications" ("Союз связи") in three lines is placed at the centre of the badge. Flying aircraft with a wingspan of 21 mm is situated just above the ribbon. Silver, screw back attachment.

60. "To the Honorary Polar Explorer" ("Почетному полярнику"). The badge measuring 45x33 mm shows a composition that consists of anchor, emblem of the Civil aviation (wings), ice, icebreaker with inscription "J.Stalin" on its side and terrestrial map with routes of scientific expeditions. The badge is topped with the red enameled banner inscribed "To the Honorary Polar Explorer" ("Почетному полярнику"). Sickle and hammer emblem is placed to the right of a banner. Anchor and wings are superimposed on the badge. Bronze, screw back attachment.

61. "To the Honorary Polar Explorer" ("Почетному полярнику"). Composition measuring 31x23 mm consists of anchor, emblem of the Civil aviation, ice (white enamel), icebreaker with inscription "J.Stalin" on its side, terrestrial map. Image of a flying aircraft is placed just above the North Pole, sickle and hammer is situated at the right. The badge is topped with the red enameled banner inscribed "To the Honorary Polar Explorer" ("Почетному полярнику"). Silver, screw back attachment.

62. "To the High Achiever of Geodesy and Cartography" ("Отличнику геодезии-картографии"). Rectangular badge measuring 25x22 mm with truncated upper angles shows light blue enameled map of the northern hemisphere, red enameled map of the Soviet Union inscribed "USSR" ("CCCP") and flying biplane at the top. Ears of wheat, geodesic tower and surveying compass are placed below. 4 mm high red enameled ribbon inscribed "To the High Achiever of Geodesy and Cartography" ("Отличнику геодезии-картографии") in two lines is situated at the bottom of the badge. Silver, screw back attachment.

63. "To the Shock Worker of the First Five-Year Plan" ("Ударнику первой пятилетки"). The badge measuring 49x38 mm consists of an elongated red enameled five-point star flanked with ears of wheat. A vertical oval with a 3 mm high inscription "To the Shock Worker of the First Five-Year Plan" ("Ударнику первой пятилетки") is superimposed on a star. Images of caterpillar, factory buildings, power line and flying dirigible are seen inside an oval. Red enameled banner with its right part turning into a cogwheel is superimposed on the oval. Portrait of Joseph Stalin facing left inside a vertical oval is situated at the bottom of the banner. Silvered bronze, screw back attachment.

64. "To the Best Shock Worker – Fighter for Socialism" ("Лучшему ударнику – борцу за социализм"). An oval badge measuring 44x31 mm is topped with a red enameled five-point star and half of a cogwheel. Badge is flanked with branches that turn into fancy decoration at the bottom. Centre of the badge shows light blue enameled territorial map inscribed "USSR" ("CCCP") at the upper part. 3,5 mm wide white enameled ribbon inscribed "Fighter for Socialism" ("Борцу за социализм") is superimposed between map and star. Blue enameled plate bearing inscription "To the Best Shock Worker" ("Лучш. ударнику") is placed at the lower part of the badge. Brass motor car and monoplane with a wingspan of 35 mm are superimposed above the map. Windows of an airplane are covered with white enamel, wings sport red enameled five-point stars. Circular brass plate measuring 28,5 mm in diameter is fixed to the reverse of the badge. It is circumscribed "For Exemplary Work with Motor Transport during the 3rd All-Union Contest" ("За образцовую работу на автотранспорте в 3-ем Всесоюзном Конкурсе"), each word separated with small star. Horizontal inscription "Leningrad. Park No.1 of the Leningrad Cartage and Motor Transport" ("г.Ленинград. Парк № 1 Ленавтогужтранса") is stamped at the centre of the plate in two lines. Name and initials of the awardee are engraved between those two lines. Bronze, chains and safety pin attachment.

VARIOUS BADGES

Image of an airplane, being then a symbol of a technological advance akin to modern sputnik and spaceship, was widely used in design of various pre-WWII badges.

65. "Moscow Komsomolets" Aircraft (Самолет "Московский комсомолец"). Front view of a stylized aircraft with a wingspan of 60 mm. Undercarriage are flanked with laurel branches, superimposed propeller is covered with red enamel, wings are inscribed "Moscow Komsomolets" ("Московский комсомолец"). Three edges of a five-point red star (distance between edges is 27 mm) are seen above an aircraft. Abbreviation "KIM" ("КИМ") is situated at the white-enameled central part of the star. Edges of the star are placed against a rim inscribed "MK VLKSM" ("МК ВЛКСМ"). Silver, screw back attachment.

66. "Ten Years of the Soviet Armenia" ("10 лет Советской Армении"). The badge measuring 50x42 mm has salient oval shape. Red enameled five-point star (distance between its edges is 36 mm) bearing an emblem of sickle and hammer is situated at the centre of the badge. Flying biplane measuring 10x10 mm is placed at the upper right part of the badge, red enameled torch, buildings and branch are at the left. Stylized tank is situated at the lower right part of the badge. Red enameled rising sun and two crossed rifles are superimposed on a ribbon inscribed "1920 X 1930" and placed at the very bottom. Inscription "SSRA" ("CCPA") is running in semi-circle at the upper part of the badge. Gilt silver, screw back attachment.

67. "Free From Hand-Shaking" ("Свободен от рукопожатий"). Round badge measuring 26 mm in diameter is made of a wide white enameled rim bearing an inscription "Free From Hand-Shaking" ("Свободен от рукопожатий") and 17 mm inner circle covered with dark blue or red enamel and showing a flying aircraft. Bronze, screw back attachment.

68. "Pravda" Aircraft (Самолет "Правда"). Five-engined monoplane measuring 37x30 mm with only four engines visible. Back side of its fuselage bears an inscription "USSR No.1001" ("СССР № 1001"), crew cab is inscribed "Pravda" ("Правда"). Silvered bronze, screw back attachment.

69. "Be Ready for Medical Defense of the USSR" ("Будь готов к санитарной обороне СССР"). Dark blue enameled vertical hexagon measuring 11,5 mm at its base and 35 mm in height is topped with a red enameled five-point star. Biplane with white enameled fuselage bearing images of red cross and red crescent is placed at the upper portion of the hexagon. Half-length portrait of a saluting young pioneer wearing red necktie is situated at the bottom. Two variations of the badge are known to exist differing in shirt of a pioneer and fuselage of an aircraft (white enameled or bronze). Inscription "Be Ready for Medical Defense of the USSR" ("Будь готов к санитарной обороне СССР") running in four lines is placed between biplane and pioneer. Bronze, screw back attachment.

70. Emblem of the Air Force Sports Club (Эмблема спортклуба ВВС). Flag measuring 18,5x7,5 mm, covered with yellow and blue enamel and bearing Air Force emblem. Bronze, screw back attachment.

71. Emblem of the "Krylya Sovetov" ("Soviet Wings") Sports Society (Эмблема спортобщества "Крылья Советов"). White-enameled rectangular badge measuring 24x11 mm showing red-enameled flying monoplane with a wingspan of 20 mm. Bronze, screw back attachment.

72. Blue-enameled flag measuring 17x9 mm showing red enameled monoplane. Bronze, screw back attachment.

73. Emblem of the "Leningrad Transport Worker" Sports Club (Эмблема спортклуба "Ленинградский транспортник"). The badge has a shape of a isosceles trapezium with its two bases measuring 20 mm and 6 mm and height worth 17 mm. Letter "L" ("Л") is made of 4 mm wide white enameled stripes placed along lateral sides of trapezium, while letter "T" is made of red enamel in the middle of the badge. Emblem of the motor transport is situated at the bottom of the badge, flying aircraft is seen at the upper left corner. Bronze, safety pin attachment.

74. "Maxim Gorky" Aircraft (Самолет "Максим Горький"). Eight-engine monoplane measuring 28 mm in length with a wingspan of 40 mm. Inscription on wings reads "Maxim Gorky" ("Максим Горький"). Brass, pin attachment.

75. "Exhibition of the children's technical works" ("Выставка детского технического творчества"). Dark blue enameled oval badge (22x17 mm) framed with white and blue thin stripe. Radio tower with two lightning bolts and superimposed aircraft with a wingspan of 7 mm above it are placed at the centre of the badge. A plate being a part of a rim framed with light blue stripe is placed above an oval. Plate is inscribed "Exhibition of the children's tech[nical] works" ("Выставка детского тех. творчества"). The badge is attached to a white pentagonal bar bearing an image of a red five-point star together with inscription "XX Years" ("XX лет") by two chains. Bronze, screw attachment at the back of the bar.

76. "To the Winner of the 1939 Air Force Championship" ("Победителю спортивного первенства ВВС 1939 г."). Circular badge measuring 26 mm in diameter turns gradually into a plate inscribed "1939" and flanked with laurel leaves. 4 mm wide salient rim inscribed "Championship" ("Спортивное первенство") is placed at the centre of the badge. Orange and blue colored flag of the Soviet Air Force as well as flying aircraft are placed inside the rim. Red enameled ribbon inscribed "To the Winner" ("Победителю") turning into laurel leaves is situated at the bottom of the rim. Inscription "Air Force of the RKKA" ("ВВС РККА") is placed below the flag. Bronze, screw back attachment.

77. "May, 1" ("1 мая"). Salient image of the globe, its upper part being enveloped in a ribbon with inscription "Workers of the World, Unite!" ("Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь"). Inscription "May" ("мая") made in red letters and red aircraft with a wingspan of 19 mm are placed at the globe. The badge is topped with the 14 mm high red digit "1". Brass, pin attachment.

78. "Five-Year Plan" ("Пятилетка"). Pin made of photo paper, covered with celluloid and framed with a rim made of white tin measuring 22 mm in diameter. Factory buildings, caterpillar, airplane and glider are placed against dark background. Bust of Vladimir Lenin wearing cap is situated on the foreground. Upper part of the pin bears 2 mm high inscription "Five-Year Plan" ("Пятилетка"). Pin attachment.

79. "Let's Multiply the Ranks of Aviators-Security Officers" ("Умножим ряды летчиков-чекистов"). Rim inscribed "Let's Multiply the Ranks of Aviators-Security Officers" ("Умножим ряды летчиков-чекистов") and measuring 33 mm in diameter turns into cogwheel at the upper part of the badge. Red enameled ribbon is superimposed on the top of the cogwheel and bears inscription "Dinamo" ("Динамо"). 32 mm long red enameled biplane is superimposed on the centre of the badge, sickle and hammer are placed below an aircraft. Hallmarked silver.

80. "Young Pilot" ("Юный пилот"). Rectangular badge rounded at its top measures 41x21 mm. A figure of a young man holding aircraft model above his head is placed at the centre of the badge. Miniature factory buildings are at his left, hangar is at his right. Stylized rising sun illuminated semi-circular inscription "USSR" ("УССР") behind the man. The badge is inscribed "Young Pilot" ("Юный пилот") at the bottom and flanked by abbreviation "KSMU" ("КСМУ") standing for the "Communist Union of the Ukraine Youth" ("Коммунистический Союз Молодежи Украины"). Silver, screw back attachment.

After the article "Voluntary Defense Societies and Aviation" has been published in the "Soviet Collector" magazine (1981, No.19), four more badges of ODVF (Obshchestvo Druzej Vozdushnogo Flota, Society of Air Fleet Friends) became known to the author.

81. Emblem of the ODVF of the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (Эмблема ОДВФ ЗСФСР). Five-point red enameled star bearing capital letters "З", "C", "Ф", "C" and "P" on its arms is superimposed on a pair of stretched blue enameled wings. Propeller is placed diagonally on a star. Blue enameled ribbon inscribed "ODVF" ("ОДВФ") either in Russian or Georgian is situated at the bottom of the badge. Badges measure 50x23 and 37x16 mm. Bronze, screw back attachment.

82. Souvenir pin of the ODVF (Сувенирный значок ОДВФ). 32 mm long horizontal propeller superimposed on a five-cylinder radial engine measuring 13 mm in diameter. Letters "O", "D", "V" and "F" are placed in spaces between cylinders. Brass, pin attachment.

83. ODVF of the North Caucasus Region (ОДВФ Северо-Кавказского края). The badge measuring 28x28 mm has a shape of a globe inscribed "USSR" ("CCCP") flanked with sickle and hammer, and illuminated with rays of the rising sun. 18 mm long flying aircraft with a wingspan of 25 mm sports red stars on its wings and fin. 4 mm wide ribbon inscribed "ODVF SKK" ("ОДВФ СКК") is placed at the bottom. Bronze, screw back attachment.

84. Emblem of the ODVF of the USSR (Значок-эмблема ОДВФ СССР). Rectangular flag covered with dark blue enamel measuring 29x16 mm with 29 mm long flagstaff. Quarter of the sun measuring 16 mm in diameter and bearing an abbreviation "USSR" ("CCCP") with radiant rays is situated at the lower left part of the flag. Silhouette of an airplane is shown at the right part of the badge, while 3,4 mm high abbreviation "ODVF" ("ОДВФ") is situated at the upper left part. Both inscriptions are in Georgian. Bronze, screw back attachment.

GVF 1

At the Dawn of Soviet Aviation

Joseph Soud

 

This article was originally published in the “Soviet Collector” magazine, 1983, No.21 under the heading “Phaleristics” (pp.131-141).

 

DOBROLYOT, UKRVOZDUKHPUT AND AEROFLOT

 

Permanent Council on Civil Aviation was established in the newly formed USSR on February 09, 1923 on initiative of Vladimir Lenin, the first leader of the Soviet Union. Next steps aimed at strengthening of the still immature Soviet aeronautics were creation of the Russian Society of Voluntary Air Fleet – “Dobrolyot” (Российское Общество Добровольного воздушного флота, “Добролет”), Ukrainian Society of Airways – “Ukrvozdukhput” (Украинское акционерное общество воздушных сообщений, “Укрвоздухпуть” or “Укрповiтряшлях”) and Transcaucasian Society of Air Transport (Закавказское общество воздушных сообщений, “Закавиа”). Those bodies formed the basis for the mighty civil aviation of the Soviet Union. Later on they merged into the All-Union Association of the Civil Air Fleet that in its turn was reorganized into the Chief Directorate of the Civil Air Fleet under the Council of Peoples’ Commissars in 1932. It was then that the name “Aeroflot” (“Аэрофлот”) emerged. Chief Directorate of the Civil Air Fleet was subsequently elevated to the Ministry of Civil Aviation. Inaugural flight by Dobrolyot from Moscow to Nizhniy Novgorod took place on July 15, 1923, Junkers F13 aircraft being piloted by famous aviator Yakov Moiseev (18.08.1897-28.12.1968).

On April 28, 1933 the Council of Peoples’ Commissars proclaimed Civil Aviation Day to be celebrated annually as a token of recognition of achievements of the Soviet aviation during the first five-year plan. The day had been celebrated on August 18, 1933 for the first time. The Day of Aeroflot is also celebrated on the second Sunday of each February since 1979.

 

1. Badge of the Dobrolyot (Знак Добролета). 5 mm wide rim measuring 37 mm in diameter is made of cogwheel and ear of wheat joined by the superimposed abbreviation “USSR” (“CCCP”) at the top. Sickle and hammer emblem is superimposed on the rim, while inscription “Dobrolyot” (“Добролет”) as well as monoplane with a wingspan of 20 mm – on that emblem. Wings are covered with red and fuselage with dark blue or black enamel. Capital letters “Д” and “Л” are placed on wings. Screw back attachment. Badges are made of hallmarked gold; hallmarked silver; hallmarked silver rim with gilt monoplane and both abbreviations.

 

2. Emblem of the Dobrolyot (Эмблема Добролета). The badge in the shape of an airplane measuring 35x23 mm. Wings and tail assembly are covered with red, while fuselage with dark blue enamel (variation with black enamel is known to exist as well). Capital letters “Д” and “Л” are placed on wings. Bronze, screw back attachment.

 

3. Same as No.2 but measuring 21x16 mm. Screw back attachment. Bronze and hallmarked silver.

 

4. Emblem of the Dobrolyot placed on a circular badge, the latter being covered with pearl enamel. Diameter of badge is either 19, 16 or 10 mm. Different colors of an airplane, capital letters as well as of basic enamel are known to exist. Silver, screw back attachment.

 

5. Dark blue emblem of the Dobrolyot (15x19 mm) placed on a circular badge, the latter being covered with pearl enamel and measuring 24 mm in diameter. The badge is framed with a 2 mm wide rim covered with dark blue enamel and showing 16 five-point stars. Different colors of enamel are known to exist. Hallmarked silver, screw back attachment.

 

6. Emblem of the Dobrolyot placed in the middle of a diamond measuring 14x13 mm and covered with radiant white enamel. Wings and tail assembly are covered with red, while fuselage with dark blue enamel. Three variations of the badge differing in position of an airplane on the emblem are known to exist. Hallmarked silver, screw back attachment.

 

7. Emblem of the Dobrolyot (12x7 mm) placed in the centre of a salient horizontal oval badge measuring 48x20 mm and covered with radiant blue enamel. The whole badge is framed with a 1,5 mm wide red stripe. Airplane is of red color, letters “Д” and “Л” are black. Silver, safety pin attachment.

 

8. Light blue emblem of the Dobrolyot (15x9 mm) placed in the centre of a salient horizontal oval badge measuring 52x23 mm and covered with pearl enamel. Silvered bronze, screw back attachment.

 

9. Emblem of the Dobrolyot (11,5x8 mm) placed in the centre of a salient horizontal oval badge measuring 21x12 mm and covered with dark blue enamel. Fuselage is dark blue, wings and tail assembly are red, letters “Д” and “Л” are black. Silver, screw back attachment.

 

10. Badge “For 100,000 km Flown” of the Dobrolyot (“За налет 100 тыс. км”, Добролет). The badge of a salient shape is made of the red banner inscribed “USSR” (“CCCP”) on top and “Dobrolyot” (“Добролет”) at the bottom (left) and laurel branch (right). Black enameled aircraft flying above the dark blue enameled peak with white enameled top imitating snow is superimposed against blue background on the centre of the badge. Decoration is topped with red enameled five-point star. Sickle and hammer join the banner. Inscription “100,000 km” (“100000 км.”) is superimposed in semi-circle on the lower right part of the central medallion, while name and initials of the awardee are found on the laurel branch. Gold, hot enamel, screw back attachment.

 

11. Badge “For 100,000 km Flown” of the Ukrpovitryashlyakh (“За налет 100 000 км”, Укрповiтряшлях). Dark blue enameled rim measuring 20 mm in diameter and bearing inscription in Ukrainian: “100,000 km” (“100 000 кiлометрiв”). Monoplane with a wingspan of 34 mm and abbreviation on a right wing “UPSh” (“УПШ”) is superimposed on a rim. Gold, screw back attachment.

 

12. Emblem of the Ukrpovitryashlyakh (Значок-эмблема УПШ). Monoplane with a wingspan of 35 mm and 35 mm long fuselage. Right wings bears abbreviation “UPSh” (“УПШ”). Silver, pin attachment.

 

13. Badge of the Ukrvozdukhput (Значок “Укрвоздухпуть”). Pressed pentagon with each side measuring 16 mm. Five-point star with its radiant rays illuming terrestrial map is placed at the upper angle. Monoplane is situated at the centre of the badge, inscription “Ukrvozdukhput” (“Укрвоздухпуть”) – at the bottom. Brass, pin attachment.

 

14. Emblem of the Soviet-Swedish Airline “Moscow-Riga-Stockholm” (Эмблема советско-шведской авиалинии “Москва-Рига-Стокгольм”). Two-engine aircraft with a wingspan of 36 mm and three-lobed propellers. Silvered brass, pin attachment.

 

15. Emblem of Aeroflot (Значок-эмблема Аэрофлота). Circular badge measuring 22 mm in diameter is covered with dark blue enamel and shows flag of the Aeroflot. Lower part of the badge shows 2,5 mm wide red-enameled ribbon bearing an inscription “GVF of the USSR” (“ГВФ СССР”). Bronze, screw back attachment.

 

BADGES FOR FLOWN DISTANCES 

 

The very first statute of the badge “For … km Flown” was instituted on December 13, 1935 by the Order of the Chief Directorate of the Civil Air Fleet No.891. It was altered on November 05, 1938 by the Order No.1134: the badge “For 800,000 km Flown” was replaced with the badge “For 1,000,000 km Flown”. After jet airplanes have been introduced on Soviet air routes, design of badges for flown distances was changed a bit and type of aircraft was changed to Tu-104. Eduard Shwarz (23.02.1893-27.09.1977) was the first Soviet aviator who covered 300,000 km, Nikolay Shebanov (1899-1953) set record of one million km flown, Vasily Monakhov became the first flight mechanic who covered one million km (1938).

Come 1963, two unique decorations were introduced: “For 2,000,000 km Flown” and “For 3,300,000 km Flown”. Those badges were presented to Soviet cosmonauts Valentina Tereshkova and Valery Bykovsky on June 27, 1963 by Evgeniy Loginov, the head of the Aeroflot, at the Central Television Studio during “Star Relay of Cosmonauts” TV programme.

 

16. “For 300,000 km Flown”, 1935 issue (“За налет 300 тыс. км” образца 1935 г.). Salient globe measuring 21 mm in diameter entwined with laurel leaves (25 mm in diameter) mounted on nine flying stylized flags covered with blue enamel (32 mm in diameter). Leaves at the bottom are tied crosswise with red enameled ribbon. Another 2 mm wide red enameled ribbon bearing an inscription “300,000 km” (“300 тыс. км”) is placed on the globe. Abbreviation “GVF” (“ГВФ”) is situated above, together with a superimposed emblem of the Aeroflot with a wingspan of 15 mm. Twin-engine ANT-9 airplane with a wingspan of 40 mm is situated in the centre of the badge. Hallmarked silver, screw back attachment.

 

17. “For 500,000 km Flown”, 1935 issue (“За налет 500 тыс. км” образца 1935 г.). Same as No.16 but flags are covered with dark blue enamel, globe is gilt. Inscription on the ribbon reads “500,000 km” (“500 тыс. км”).

 

18. “For 300,000 km Flown”, 1938 issue (“За налет 300 тыс. км” образца 1938 г.). Same as No.16 but flags, globe, wreath and Aeroflot emblem measure 37, 22, 28 and 15 mm, respectively. Ribbon is 3 mm wide, wingspan of PS-89 aircraft measures 41 mm.

 

19. “For 800,000 km Flown”, 1935 issue (“За налет 800 тыс. км” образца 1935 г.). Same as No.16 but inscription on the ribbon reads “800,000 km” (“800 тыс. км”).

 

20. “For 500,000 km Flown”, 1938 issue (“За налет 500 тыс. км” образца 1938 г.). Same as No.19 but flags are covered with dark blue enamel, parts of the badge are gilt. Inscription on the ribbon reads “500,000 km” (“500 тыс. км”).

 

21. “For 1,000,000 km Flown”, 1938 issue (“За налет 1 млн. км” образца 1938 г.). The badge measuring 41x31 mm represents a composition made of salient globe covered with white transparent enamel and flanked with laurel branches and flags of the Aeroflot (left) and the USSR (right). 4mm wide red enameled ribbon inscribed “1,000,000 km” (“1000 000 клм”) is placed at the bottom. Map of the USSR bearing inscription “USSR” (“CCCP”) and showing air routes is covered with red enamel and is placed at the centre of the badge. Abbreviation “GVF” (“ГВФ”) is placed at the bottom of the globe. PS-89 passenger aircraft with a wingspan of 38 mm is superimposed on the upper portion of the globe. Hallmarked silver, screw back attachment.

 

22. “For 300,000 km Flown”, pattern (“За налет 300 тыс. км” пробный). Same as No.19, but 1 mm bigger. Silvered bronze, screw back attachment.

 

23. “For 300,000 km Flown”, pattern (“За налет 300 тыс. км” пробный). Salient globe measuring 21 mm in diameter entwined with laurel leaves (23 mm in diameter) mounted on nine flying stylized flags covered with dark blue enamel (38 mm in diameter). Leaves at the bottom are tied crosswise with red enameled ribbon. Another 4 mm wide red enameled ribbon bearing an inscription “300,000 km” (“300 т. кил”) is placed on the globe. Abbreviation “GVF” (“ГВФ”) is situated above, together with a superimposed emblem of the Aeroflot with a wingspan of 17,5 mm. Aircraft with a wingspan of 41 mm is situated in the centre of the badge. Silvered bronze, screw back attachment.

 

24. “For 500,000 km Flown”, pattern (“За налет 500 тыс. км” пробный). Same as No.23, but flags are covered with light blue enamel, and flagstaffs are shorter. Inscription on the ribbon reads “500,000 km” (“500 т. кил”). Silvered bronze, screw back attachment.

 

25. “For 800,000 km Flown”, pattern (“За налет 800 тыс. км” пробный). Same as No.24, but flags are covered with turquoise enamel. Inscription on the ribbon reads “800,000 km” (“800 т. кил”). Silvered bronze, screw back attachment.

 

26. “High Achiever of the Aeroflot”, 1938 issue (“Отличник Аэрофлота” образца 1938 г.). The badge was initially introduced in 1937 and its first statute was instituted according to the order of the Chief Directorate of the Civil Air Fleet No.1134 of November 05, 1938. Decoration was presented to the personnel of the Chief Directorate of the Civil Air Fleet who distinguished themselves in development of socialist emulation, Stakhanovite movement and record-setting in work productivity, efficiency drive and inventive acts, socio-political activities and support of good working performance. 36 high achievers were decorated with the badge in 1939, while altogether 17,000 decorations were presented within 35 years (up to 1973). The very first badge was issued to the Hero of the Soviet Union Volkan Goranov, alias of the renowned Bulgarian hero General Zakhari Zakhariev (04.02.1904-29.04.1987).

The badge measuring 39x32 mm shows globe flanked with laurel and oak leaves. An emblem of the Aeroflot with a wingspan of 32 mm is superimposed on the centre of the globe. Flying flags of the USSR and the Aeroflot covered with enamel top the badge. Red enameled ribbon inscribed “High Achiever of the Aeroflot” (“Отличник Аэрофлота”) in two lines is placed at the bottom. Hallmarked silver or Bronze, screw back attachment.

 

27. “High Achiever of the Aeroflot”, 1940 issue (“Отличник Аэрофлота” образца 1940 г.). Same as No.26 but measuring 30x26 mm. Bronze, screw back attachment.

 

28. “Competitions of the Aeroflot Skiers” (“Соревнования лыжников Аэрофлота”). Circular badge measuring 18 mm in diameter is covered with blue enamel. It shows images of an aircraft with a wingspan of 6 mm and skier wearing dark blue ski suit. Inscription “GVF” (“ГВФ”) is situated at the left, “1937” – at the bottom. Bronze, screw back attachment.

 

AIRCRAFT INDUSTRY FACTORIES, TRADE UNIONS, SHOCK-WORKERS AND HIGH ACHIEVERS OF EMULATIONS

 

29. “To the Best Shock-Worker of the Chief Directorate of the Aviation Industry” (“Лучшему ударнику ГУАП”). Rectangular enameled badge measuring 18x13 mm showing “Maxim Gorky” aircraft against blue background. White stripe is placed at the right, dark blue stripes – above and below. Stripes are inscribed “To the Best Shock-Worker of the GUAP” (“Лучшему ударнику ГУАП”). Bronze, screw back attachment.

 

30. High Achiever of the Socialist Emulation of the People’s Commissariat of Aviation Industry (“Отличник социалистического соревнования Народного комиссариата авиационной промышленности”). 2,5 mm wide dark blue enameled rim measuring 25 mm in diameter turns into two crossed flags of the Soviet Air Force. White enameled plate inscribed “NKAP” (“НКАП”) tops the badge. Red enameled five-point star with distance between its edges worth 21 mm is superimposed on the centre of the badge. Roundish-shaped stylized airplane engine is superimposed on the centre of the star. It shows inscription “High Achiever” (“Отличник”) and  white enameled aircraft flying above roofs of factory buildings. The rim is inscribed “of the Socialist Emulation” (“Социалистического соревнования”). Bronze, screw back attachment.

 

31. “10 Years of the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI)” (“10 лет ЦАГИ”). Circular badge measuring 20 mm in diameter showing a man holding a model of monoplane above his head. Miniature factory buildings are placed at the bottom, three flying aircrafts are seen at the sky above. Semicircular abbreviation “TsAGI” (“ЦАГИ”) in capital red letters is situated at the upper left part of the badge. Silver or Bronze. Screw back attachment.

 

32. “XV Years of the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI)” (“XV лет ЦАГИ”). Red enameled flag measuring 20x20 mm with 28 mm flagstaff is superimposed on a blue enameled circle measuring 23 mm in diameter. Flag has small silver five-point star at upper left corner and an image of a “Maxim Gorky” aircraft superimposed on its centre. Lower part of the circle carries inscription “XV Years of TsAGI” (“XV лет ЦАГИ”). Bronze or Silvered bronze, screw back attachment.

 

33. “Stakhanovite of the Stalin District” (“Стахановец Сталинского района”). The badge of a round shape measuring 23 mm in diameter is covered with light blue enamel and shows factory buildings as well as motor and horizontally placed propeller. The badge is topped with red enameled banner measuring 18x9 mm with inscription “Stakhanovite of the Stalin District” (“Стахановец Сталинского района”) and white enameled five-point star at its upper left corner. The badge is worn suspended from a vertical oval bar measuring 14,5x12 mm and showing bust of Joseph Stalin facing right. Silvered bronze, screw back attachment on the bar.

 

34. “To the XVII Communist Party Congress Shock Worker” (“Ударнику им. XVII съезда ВКП(б)”). Circular badge measuring 30 mm in diameter is flanked with seven-pronged part of a cogwheel inscribed “Stalin District” (“Сталинский р-н”) at the left. Factory buildings, hoisting crane and flying airplane are seen at the background of the badge. Electric motor, horizontal propeller and 11 mm high white enameled Roman number “XVII” are superimposed on the centre of the badge. Two flying red enameled banners inscribed “To the XVII Communist Party Congress Shock Worker” (“Ударнику им. съезда ВКП(б)”) in two lines are placed above “XVII” number. The badge is worn suspended from a vertical oval bar measuring 14,5x12 mm and showing bust of Joseph Stalin facing right. Silvered bronze, screw back attachment on the bar.

 

35. “V Years of the State Institute for Projection of Aviation Plants” (“V лет Гипроавиа”). Cogwheel measuring 24 mm in diameter joins crossed triangular ruler, T-square and a pair of compasses at the bottom. Catheti of triangular ruler bear inscription “Giproavia 1932-1937” (“Гипроавиа 1932-1937”) separated with the small five-point star. Factory buildings against light blue enameled background are situated at the centre of the badge. Red enameled airplane with a wingspan of 20 mm is placed at the top of the badge, 12 mm high white enameled Roman numeral “V” is superimposed at the bottom. Bronze, screw back attachment.

 

36. “20 Years to the Dimitrov Plant” (“20 лет заводу им. Димитрова”). Badge of a rectangular shape measuring 37x27 mm is divided diagonally into two parts covered with red (left) and light blue (right) enamel. Red enameled portion bears inscription “20 Years” (“20 лет”) running in two lines, while light blue enameled one is inscribed “Dimitrov Plant” (“зав.им. Димитрова”) in three lines. Seaplane with a wingspan of 58 mm and sporting red enameled five-point stars on its wings is superimposed on the centre of the badge. Right wing of a seaplane is inscribed “USSR” (“СССР”). Bronze, screw back attachment.

 

37. “Stalin Plant No.19” (“Завод № 19 им. Сталина”). Salient circular badge measuring 25 or 53 mm in diameter is encircled with a 4 mm dark blue enameled rim inscribed “U.S.S.R. N.K.T.P. Stalin Plant No.19” (“С.С.С.Р. Н.К.Т.П. Завод № 19 им. Сталина”). Inscription is separated with a red enameled five-point star at the top. Red enameled aircraft is placed at the centre of the badge above light blue enameled background with blue continents. Bronze, screw back attachment.

 

38. “To the Personnel Officer of the Plant No.20” (“Кадровику завода 20”). Badge measuring 37x25 mm shows a composition made of seven-cylinder radial aircraft engine with blue enameled shield topped with seven-pronged cogwheel. The latter bears inscription “To the Personnel Officer of the Plant No.20” (“Кадровику з-да 20”), while the shield is inscribed “Years” (“лет”). White enameled Roman numeral “V” measuring 30x25 mm each side being 5 mm thick is superimposed on the composition described above. Small red enameled five-point star is superimposed at the bottom of the numeral, while twin-engined monoplane with a wingspan of 25 mm is superimposed at the upper portion of the “V”. Silvered bronze, aircraft is made of brass. Screw back attachment.

 

39. “Five Years to the Plant No.22” (“Пять лет заводу № 22”). The badge shows a 20 mm high red enameled Roman numeral “V” topped with a white enameled segment of a rim inscribed “1927-1932”. Red enameled five-point star crowns the composition. Space between lower arc of the rim and inner sides of “V” is covered with dark blue enamel and bears inscription “Plant No.22” (“Завод 22”) running in two lines. The word “Years” (“Лет”) is situated at the bottom of the “V” numeral. Four-engined monoplane with a wingspan of 40 mm is superimposed on the centre of the badge. Silvered bronze, screw back attachment.

 

40. “Five Years of the Plant No.22” (“Пять лет заводу № 22”). Salient dark blue enameled circular badge measuring 22 mm in diameter. Aircraft with a wingspan of 26 mm is placed on the centre of the badge. 17 mm high red-enameled digit “5” is situated in the middle of the badge. Variation with superimposed “5” exists as well. Inscription “Years” (“лет”) is at the right of the digit, number “22” is at the bottom. The badge is topped with red enameled five point star. Silvered bronze, screw back attachment.

 

41. “To the Old Personnel Officer of the Plant No.24” (“Старому кадровику завода 24”). Vertical diamond measuring 50x25 mm is covered with dark blue enamel and is topped with red enameled five-point star. Inscription “To the Old Personnel Officer” is placed at both upper sides of a diamond on 5 mm wide stripes. Aircraft V-engine inscribed “Frunze Plant No.24” (“Завод 24 им. Фрунзе”) is superimposed at the bottom of the badge. Four-engined airplane with five-point star at endings of both wings is superimposed above engine. Badge is made of bronze, engine and aircraft are made of silvered brass. Screw back attachment.

 

42. “To the Long Serving Worker of the Frunze Plant” (“Кадровому фрунзенцу”). Same as No.41 but inscribed “To the Long Serving Worker of the Frunze Plant” (“Кадровому фрунзенцу”) and bearing number of years the holder worked at the plant: 10, 15 or 20.

 

43. “To the Old Industrial Worker of the Plant No.24” (“Старому производственнику завода 24”). Circular badge measuring 40 mm in diameter inscribed “To the Old Industrial Worker” (“Старому производственнику”) on the 2,5 mm wide red enameled rim. Aircraft engine is placed at the lower right part of the badge, flying monoplane with a wingspan of 33 mm is situated above. Red enameled five-point star with distance between its edges measuring 13 mm is placed at the centre of the badge against light blue background that bears inscription “Of the Plant No.24” (“завода 24”) executed in two lines. Four 2 mm wide white enameled stripes are seen under the star. Silvered bronze, screw back attachment.

 

44. “Frunze Plant” (“Завод им. Фрунзе”). Salient enameled circular badge measuring 53 mm in diameter topped with five-point star covered with radiant red enamel. 7 mm dark blue enameled rim is inscribed “USSR NKAP. Frunze Plant” (“СССР НКАП. Завод им. Фрунзе”). Central part of the badge shows map of the northern hemisphere – white enameled ice on the Pole, light blue enameled sea and brown enameled islands and mainland. Flying red banner with sickle and hammer is placed above the North Pole. Bronze, screw back attachment.

 

45. “Five-Year Plan in 2¾ Years” (“5 в 2¾”). Enameled diamond measuring 35x25 mm. Red enameled propeller is placed lengthwise long diagonal, while green enameled sideview of a wing  with interplane struts is placed lengthwise short one. White digit “5” and red fraction “2¾” are placed against light blue background with 0,8 mm wide white enameled stripes. Bronze, screw back attachment.

 

46. “To the Best Shock Worker of the Aircraft and Engine Building. Plant No.26” (“Лучшему ударнику авиамоторостроения. Завод № 26”). Horizontal oval badge measuring 42x38 mm is flanked with two laurel branches at the lower part. The main composition consists of a single-engined aircraft inscribed “USSR” (“CCCP”) at the back portion of its fuselage superimposed on a red enameled five point star. The latter is placed on a red enameled banner measuring 36x20 mm and bearing three inscriptions: “USSR” (“CCCP”) at the upper left corner; “To the Best Shock Worker” (“Лучшему ударнику”) in two lines at the upper right corner; “5 Years” (“5 лет”) at the lower right corner. White enameled background is inscribed “Of the Aircraft and Engine Building. Plant No.26” (“Авиамоторостроения. 3-д № 26”) in two lines. Silvered bronze, screw back attachment.

 

47. “To the Best Shock Worker. Main Plant No.43” (“Лучшему ударнику. Головной завод 43”). The badge has a shape of a red enameled five-point star with distance between its edges measuring 34 mm. Blue-enameled circular medallion measuring 28 mm in diameter is superimposed on the centre of the star. Gyroplane with 29 mm airscrew is placed at the centre of medallion. The latter has a 3,5 mm wide rim inscribed “Plant No.43 To the Best Shock Worker Main” (“Завод 43. Лучшему ударнику головной”). Star is made of bronze, medallion and gyroplane are manufactured of silver. Screw back attachment.

 

48. “Trade Union of Transport Workers” (“Профсоюз транспортных рабочих”). The badge consists of a cogwheel measuring 30 mm in diameter and two crossed red enameled banners. The banner on the foreground bears inscription “PSTR USSR” (“ПСТР СССР”) separated with a five-point star; the banner on the background shows sickle and hammer as well as date “1919”. Cut-out horseshoe and winged propeller are situated below banners. Central medallion inside cogwheel shows removal man carrying load on his back, distance mark and wheeled prime mover with loaded cart. Tinned bronze, screw back attachment.

 

49. “Trade Union of Transport Workers” (“Профсоюз транспортных рабочих”). Same as No.48, but cogwheel measures 20 mm in diameter, horseshoe is not cut-out. Central medallion is covered with light rose radiant enamel and shows head of a horse with harness. Bronze, screw back attachment.

 

50. “Transport Workers to the Air Fleet” (“Транспортники – воздушному флоту”). The badge consists of an airplane with a wingspan of 30 mm, steam locomotive and anchor entwined with a rope. Wings of an aircraft are inscribed “USSR” (“CCCP”) and bear five-point stars. Curved 4,5 mm wide ribbon, half-red, half-light blue is superimposed on the badge. It bears inscription “Transport Workers” (“Транспортники”) on red enamel “to the Air Fleet” (“воздушному флоту”) on light blue enamel. Brass, screw back attachment.

 

51. “Transport Workers to the Air Fleet” (“Транспортники – воздушному флоту”). The badge has a shape of a cut-out round shield circumscribed “U.S.S.R.” (“С.С.С.Р.”) above and “Transport Workers to the Air Fleet” (“Транспортники воздушному флоту”) below. Train, truck and sailing ships are placed at the background, river being covered with blue enamel. Monoplane with a wingspan of 34 mm and bearing five-point stars on wings is superimposed on the centre of the badge. Brass, screw back attachment.

 

52. “Union of Drivers and Aviation Industry Workers” (“Союз рабочих-шоферов и авиаработников, СРШИА”). The badge measuring 27x23 mm consists of a green-enameled globe with meridians and parallels topped with red enameled curved ribbon inscribed “SRShIA” (“СРШИА”) and red enameled five-point star. Images of a truck and flying aircraft are placed at the globe. Bronze, screw back attachment.

 

53. “Union of Workers of the Local Transport” (“Союз рабочих местного транспорта, СРМТ”). Irregular-shaped hexagon measures 21,5x21,5 mm. White enameled background is framed with 1,5 mm wide red enameled stripe. 5 mm wide red enameled ribbon inscribed “SRMT” (“СРМТ”) is placed at the bottom. Removal man carrying load is situated at the centre of the badge, front part of a truck – at the right, head of a horse – at the left. Contour of a flying airplane is placed above the head of a horse. Bronze, screw back attachment.

 

54. “Union of Workers of Tractor and Aviation Industry” (“Союз работников автотракторной и авиационной промышленности, СРАТАП”). The badge has a shape of a salient dark blue enameled cogwheel measuring 31 mm in diameter, inscribed “Union RATAP” (“Союз РАТАП”) and topped with a superimposed silvered monoplane with a wingspan of 28 mm. Caterpillar and passenger motor-car are placed inside a cogwheel against white enameled background. Bronze, screw back attachment.

 

55. “Union of Workers of Tractor and Aviation Industry” (“Союз работников автотракторной и авиационной промышленности”). The badge consists of a dark blue enameled cogwheel at the right and red enameled banner inscribed “RATAP” (“РАТАП”) at the left. Aircraft with red enameled five point stars on wings that takes off is situated at the right upper corner of the badge. Wheeled tractor and truck are placed against light blue enameled background at the centre of the badge. Bronze, screw back attachment.

 

56. “All-Russian Union of Metalworkers” (“Всероссийский союз рабочих-металлистов, ВСРМ”). Oval badge measuring 27х21 mm shows industrial scenery including blast furnace, oil derricks, cogwheels, anvil, rails, etc. A worker holding propeller above his head is placed at the centre. Red enameled flag inscribed “VSRM” (“ВСРМ”) as well as a plate inscribed “1917” are placed at the bottom. The badge is topped with the red enameled banner with inscription “Workers of the World, Unite!” (“Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь”) in two lines. Screw back attachment. Known variations of the badge are made of silver; bronze; silver (without banner); brass (without banner).

 

57. Union of Communication Service Workers (“Союз работников связи”). Shield measuring 37x26 mm is topped with a red enameled five-point star and inscription “USSR” (“CCCP”). The badge is covered with dark blue and white enamel and shows the following images: envelope, telephone set, mail van, truck, radio tower and two airplanes. Inscription running in semi-circle reads: “S.R.Svyazi” (“С.Р.Связи”). Bronze, screw back attachment.

 

58. “Union of Communications” (“Союз связи”). Shield measuring either 14x29 mm or 34x27 mm shows the following images: antennas, transmission links, telephone receiver, white enameled envelope and aircraft. Abbreviation “USSR” (“CCCP”) as well as red enameled sickle and hammer emblem are situated at the upper part of the badge. Vertical red enameled angular ribbon inscribed “Union of Communications” (“Союз связи”) is placed at the centre of the badge. Bronze, screw back attachment. Variation of the badge manufactured of silver and engraved “To the Delegate of the IX Congress of the SR Communications USSR. 5/19 IV 25” (“Делегату IX съезда СР Связи СССР. 5/19 IV 25”) is known to exist.

 

59. “To the Shock Worker of the Socialist Communications” (“Ударнику социалистической связи”). Badge of a complex shape measuring 41x26 mm and covered with light blue enamel shows a composition that consists of Shukhov radio tower, white enameled envelopes, operating key, phone dial, rushing steam locomotive and ear of wheat. Vertical red enameled angular ribbon inscribed “Union of Communications” (“Союз связи”) in three lines is placed at the centre of the badge. Flying aircraft with a wingspan of 21 mm is situated just above the ribbon. Silver, screw back attachment.

 

60. “To the Honorary Polar Explorer” (“Почетному полярнику”). The badge measuring 45x33 mm shows a composition that consists of anchor, emblem of the Civil aviation (wings), ice, icebreaker with inscription “J.Stalin” on its side and terrestrial map with routes of scientific expeditions. The badge is topped with the red enameled banner inscribed “To the Honorary Polar Explorer” (“Почетному полярнику”). Sickle and hammer emblem is placed to the right of a banner. Anchor and wings are superimposed on the badge. Bronze, screw back attachment.

 

61. “To the Honorary Polar Explorer” (“Почетному полярнику”). Composition measuring 31x23 mm consists of anchor, emblem of the Civil aviation, ice (white enamel), icebreaker with inscription “J.Stalin” on its side, terrestrial map. Image of a flying aircraft is placed just above the North Pole, sickle and hammer is situated at the right. The badge is topped with the red enameled banner inscribed “To the Honorary Polar Explorer” (“Почетному полярнику”). Silver, screw back attachment.

 

62. “To the High Achiever of Geodesy and Cartography” (“Отличнику геодезии-картографии”). Rectangular badge measuring 25x22 mm with truncated upper angles shows light blue enameled map of the northern hemisphere, red enameled map of the Soviet Union inscribed “USSR” (“CCCP”) and flying biplane at the top. Ears of wheat, geodesic tower and surveying compass are placed below. 4 mm high red enameled ribbon inscribed “To the High Achiever of Geodesy and Cartography” (“Отличнику геодезии-картографии”) in two lines is situated at the bottom of the badge. Silver, screw back attachment.

 

63. “To the Shock Worker of the First Five-Year Plan” (“Ударнику первой пятилетки”). The badge measuring 49x38 mm consists of an elongated red enameled five-point star flanked with ears of wheat. A vertical oval with a 3 mm high inscription “To the Shock Worker of the First Five-Year Plan” (“Ударнику первой пятилетки”) is superimposed on a star. Images of caterpillar, factory buildings, power line and flying dirigible are seen inside an oval. Red enameled banner with its right part turning into a cogwheel is superimposed on the oval. Portrait of Joseph Stalin facing left inside a vertical oval is situated at the bottom of the banner. Silvered bronze, screw back attachment.

 

64. “To the Best Shock Worker – Fighter for Socialism” (“Лучшему ударнику – борцу за социализм”). An oval badge measuring 44x31 mm is topped with a red enameled five-point star and half of a cogwheel. Badge is flanked with branches that turn into fancy decoration at the bottom. Centre of the badge shows light blue enameled territorial map inscribed “USSR” (“CCCP”) at the upper part. 3,5 mm wide white enameled ribbon inscribed “Fighter for Socialism” (“Борцу за социализм”) is superimposed between map and star. Blue enameled plate bearing inscription “To the Best Shock Worker” (“Лучш. ударнику”) is placed at the lower part of the badge. Brass motor car and monoplane with a wingspan of 35 mm are superimposed above the map. Windows of an airplane are covered with white enamel, wings sport red enameled five-point stars. Circular brass plate measuring 28,5 mm in diameter is fixed to the reverse of the badge. It is circumscribed “For Exemplary Work with Motor Transport during the 3rd All-Union Contest” (“За образцовую работу на автотранспорте в 3-ем Всесоюзном Конкурсе”), each word separated with small star. Horizontal inscription “Leningrad. Park No.1 of the Leningrad Cartage and Motor Transport” (“г.Ленинград. Парк № 1 Ленавтогужтранса”) is stamped at the centre of the plate in two lines. Name and initials of the awardee are engraved between those two lines. Bronze, chains and safety pin attachment.

 

VARIOUS BADGES

 

Image of an airplane, being then a symbol of a technological advance akin to modern sputnik and spaceship, was widely used in design of various pre-WWII badges.

 

65. “Moscow Komsomolets” Aircraft (Самолет “Московский комсомолец”). Front view of a stylized aircraft with a wingspan of 60 mm. Undercarriage are flanked with laurel branches, superimposed propeller is covered with red enamel, wings are inscribed “Moscow Komsomolets” (“Московский комсомолец”). Three edges of a five-point red star (distance between edges is 27 mm) are seen above an aircraft. Abbreviation “KIM” (“КИМ”) is situated at the white-enameled central part of the star. Edges of the star are placed against a rim inscribed “MK VLKSM” (“МК ВЛКСМ”). Silver, screw back attachment.

 

66. “Ten Years of the Soviet Armenia” (“10 лет Советской Армении”). The badge measuring 50x42 mm has salient oval shape. Red enameled five-point star (distance between its edges is 36 mm) bearing an emblem of sickle and hammer is situated at the centre of the badge. Flying biplane measuring 10x10 mm is placed at the upper right part of the badge, red enameled torch, buildings and branch are at the left. Stylized tank is situated at the lower right part of the badge. Red enameled rising sun and two crossed rifles are superimposed on a ribbon inscribed “1920 X 1930” and placed at the very bottom. Inscription “SSRA” (“CCPA”) is running in semi-circle at the upper part of the badge. Gilt silver, screw back attachment.

 

67. “Free From Hand-Shaking” (“Свободен от рукопожатий”). Round badge measuring 26 mm in diameter is made of a wide white enameled rim bearing an inscription “Free From Hand-Shaking” (“Свободен от рукопожатий”) and 17 mm inner circle covered with dark blue or red enamel and showing a flying aircraft. Bronze, screw back attachment.

 

68. “Pravda” Aircraft (Самолет “Правда”). Five-engined monoplane measuring 37x30 mm with only four engines visible. Back side of its fuselage bears an inscription “USSR No.1001” (“СССР № 1001”), crew cab is inscribed “Pravda” (“Правда”). Silvered bronze, screw back attachment.

 

69. “Be Ready for Medical Defense of the USSR” (“Будь готов к санитарной обороне СССР”). Dark blue enameled vertical hexagon measuring 11,5 mm at its base and 35 mm in height is topped with a red enameled five-point star. Biplane with white enameled fuselage bearing images of red cross and red crescent is placed at the upper portion of the hexagon. Half-length portrait of a saluting young pioneer wearing red necktie is situated at the bottom. Two variations of the badge are known to exist differing in shirt of a pioneer and fuselage of an aircraft (white enameled or bronze). Inscription “Be Ready for Medical Defense of the USSR” (“Будь готов к санитарной обороне СССР”) running in four lines is placed between biplane and pioneer. Bronze, screw back attachment.

 

70. Emblem of the Air Force Sports Club (Эмблема спортклуба ВВС). Flag measuring 18,5x7,5 mm, covered with yellow and blue enamel and bearing Air Force emblem. Bronze, screw back attachment.

 

71. Emblem of the “Krylya Sovetov” (“Soviet Wings”) Sports Society (Эмблема спортобщества “Крылья Советов”). White-enameled rectangular badge measuring 24x11 mm showing red-enameled flying monoplane with a wingspan of  20 mm. Bronze, screw back attachment.

 

72. Blue-enameled flag measuring 17x9 mm showing red enameled monoplane. Bronze, screw back attachment.

 

73. Emblem of the “Leningrad Transport Worker” Sports Club (Эмблема спортклуба “Ленинградский транспортник”). The badge has a shape of a isosceles trapezium with its two bases measuring 20 mm and 6 mm and height worth 17 mm. Letter “L” (“Л”) is made of 4 mm wide white enameled stripes placed along lateral sides of trapezium, while letter “T” is made of red enamel in the middle of the badge. Emblem of the motor transport is situated at the bottom of the badge, flying aircraft is seen at the upper left corner. Bronze, safety pin attachment.

 

74. “Maxim Gorky” Aircraft (Самолет “Максим Горький”). Eight-engine monoplane measuring 28 mm in length with a wingspan of 40 mm. Inscription on wings reads “Maxim Gorky” (“Максим Горький”). Brass, pin attachment.

 

75. “Exhibition of the children’s technical works” (“Выставка детского технического творчества”). Dark blue enameled oval badge (22x17 mm) framed with white and blue thin stripe. Radio tower with two lightning bolts and superimposed aircraft with a wingspan of 7 mm above it are placed at the centre of the badge. A plate being a part of a rim framed with light blue stripe is placed above an oval. Plate is inscribed “Exhibition of the children’s tech[nical] works” (“Выставка детского тех. творчества”). The badge is attached to a white pentagonal bar bearing an image of a red five-point star together with inscription “XX Years” (“XX лет”) by two chains. Bronze, screw attachment at the back of the bar.

 

76. “To the Winner of the 1939 Air Force Championship” (“Победителю спортивного первенства ВВС 1939 г.”). Circular badge measuring 26 mm in diameter turns gradually into a plate inscribed “1939” and flanked with laurel leaves. 4 mm wide salient rim inscribed “Championship” (“Спортивное первенство”) is placed at the centre of the badge. Orange and blue colored flag of the Soviet Air Force as well as flying aircraft are placed inside the rim. Red enameled ribbon inscribed “To the Winner” (“Победителю”) turning into laurel leaves is situated at the bottom of the rim. Inscription “Air Force of the RKKA” (“ВВС РККА”) is placed below the flag. Bronze, screw back attachment.

 

77. “May, 1” (“1 мая”). Salient image of the globe, its upper part being enveloped in a ribbon with inscription “Workers of the World, Unite!” (“Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь”). Inscription “May” (“мая”) made in red letters and red aircraft with a wingspan of 19 mm are placed at the globe. The badge is topped with the 14 mm high red digit “1”. Brass, pin attachment.

 

78. “Five-Year Plan” (“Пятилетка”). Pin made of photo paper, covered with celluloid and framed with a rim made of white tin measuring 22 mm in diameter. Factory buildings, caterpillar, airplane and glider are placed against dark background. Bust of Vladimir Lenin wearing cap is situated on the foreground. Upper part of the pin bears 2 mm high inscription “Five-Year Plan” (“Пятилетка”). Pin attachment.

 

79. “Let’s Multiply the Ranks of Aviators-Security Officers” (“Умножим ряды летчиков-чекистов”). Rim inscribed “Let’s Multiply the Ranks of Aviators-Security Officers” (“Умножим ряды летчиков-чекистов”) and measuring 33 mm in diameter turns into cogwheel at the upper part of the badge. Red enameled ribbon is superimposed on the top of the cogwheel and bears inscription “Dinamo” (“Динамо”). 32 mm long red enameled biplane is superimposed on the centre of the badge, sickle and hammer are placed below an aircraft. Hallmarked silver.

 

80. “Young Pilot” (“Юный пилот”). Rectangular badge rounded at its top measures 41x21 mm. A figure of a young man holding aircraft model above his head is placed at the centre of the badge. Miniature factory buildings are at his left, hangar is at his right. Stylized rising sun illuminated semi-circular inscription “USSR” (“УССР”) behind the man. The badge is inscribed “Young Pilot” (“Юный пилот”) at the bottom and flanked by abbreviation “KSMU” (“КСМУ”) standing for the “Communist Union of the Ukraine Youth” (“Коммунистический Союз Молодежи Украины”). Silver, screw back attachment.

 

After the article “Voluntary Defense Societies and Aviation” has been published in the “Soviet Collector” magazine (1981, No.19), four more badges of ODVF (Obshchestvo Druzej Vozdushnogo Flota, Society of Air Fleet Friends) became known to the author.

 

81. Emblem of the ODVF of the Transcaucasian  Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (Эмблема ОДВФ ЗСФСР). Five-point red enameled star bearing capital letters “З”, “C”, “Ф”, “C” and “P” on its arms is superimposed on a pair of stretched blue enameled wings. Propeller is placed diagonally on a star. Blue enameled ribbon inscribed “ODVF” (“ОДВФ”) either in Russian or Georgian is situated at the bottom of the badge. Badges measure 50x23 and 37x16 mm. Bronze, screw back attachment.

 

82. Souvenir pin of the ODVF (Сувенирный значок ОДВФ). 32 mm long horizontal propeller superimposed on a five-cylinder radial engine measuring 13 mm in diameter. Letters “O”, “D”, “V” and “F” are placed in spaces between cylinders. Brass, pin attachment.

 

83. ODVF of the North Caucasus Region (ОДВФ Северо-Кавказского края). The badge measuring 28x28 mm has a shape of a globe inscribed “USSR” (“CCCP”) flanked with sickle and hammer, and illuminated with rays of the rising sun. 18 mm long flying aircraft with a wingspan of 25 mm sports red stars on its wings and fin. 4 mm wide ribbon inscribed “ODVF SKK” (“ОДВФ СКК”) is placed at the bottom. Bronze, screw back attachment.

 

84. Emblem of the ODVF of the USSR (Значок-эмблема ОДВФ СССР). Rectangular flag covered with dark blue enamel measuring 29x16 mm with 29 mm long flagstaff. Quarter of the sun measuring 16 mm in diameter and bearing an abbreviation “USSR” (“CCCP”) with radiant rays is situated at the lower left part of the flag. Silhouette of an airplane is shown at the right part of the badge, while 3,4 mm high abbreviation “ODVF” (“ОДВФ”) is situated at the upper left part. Both inscriptions are in Georgian. Bronze, screw back attachment.