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Decorations of Alexander I, the first King of Yugoslavia

The future King Alexander I of Yugoslavia (16.12.1888-09.10.1934) spent his childhood in Montenegro and was educated in Geneva (Switzerland). He continued his military schooling in Saint Petersburg and Belgrade.

After Alexander’s elder brother Prince George renounced the throne in 1909, the future King as the new Crown Prince of Serbia reorganized the Serbian army, preparing for the ultimate battle against the Ottoman Empire that still occupied part of the Balkans. Crown Prince Alexander fought victorious battles in both Balkan Wars of 1912 and 1913 and was the supreme commander of the Serbian army in the World War I. On June 11, 1916 Crown Prince Alexander became the Regent of Serbia when King Peter I partially transferred his duties owing to ill health. On December 01, 1918 Alexander proclaimed the unification of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes into a single nation thus completing the dream of his father and grandfather – to unify Southern Slavs in one nation. After the death of King Peter I (29.06.1844-16.08.1921) Alexander ascended the throne of the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. Come 1929, Alexander I changed the name of the state to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.

Alexander I was murdered in Marseilles on October 9, 1934 along with the French Foreign Minister Jean Louis Barthou (25.08.1862-09.10.1934) by an experienced marksman from the Bulgarian Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization during a state visit to France where the King decided to strengthen the defensive alliance, or Little Entente, against rising Germany.

The article “Anniversary of Sorrow” by Vladimir Perekrestenko published in the magazine of the Russian white émigrés “The Sentinel” ended with the following pathetic extract: “International scene never stabilized after his demise, although Hermann Göring, one of the makers of the world politics, who represented Reich during King’s funeral, had burst into tears at a moment when coffin with the deceased King Alexander was carried out of a Belgrade railway station, and when Göring saw crowds of kneeling people at the square and adjacent streets and heard not only women, but men, and even Yugoslav soldiers bursting out sincere sobbing. The world never perceived sacrifice made by the King Alexander in the name of its better future. None of the powers that were never came to reason. The whole world put itself on the threshold of the World War II…” (“The Sentinel”, No.381(10), November 1957, p.12).

In recognition of his greatest accomplishments the National Parliament and the Senate of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia proclaimed him King Alexander I The Unifier.

Decorations and awards of Alexander I

Kingdom of Belgium

- Order of Leopold, Grand Cross (Grand Cordon de l’Ordre de Léopold)
- War Cross (Croix de Guerre)

Kingdom of Bulgaria

- Order of Saints Cyril and Methodius, the small collar (Малко огърлие на ордена “Св. св. равноапостоли Кирил и Методий”)
- Order of Saint Alexander, the small collar (Малко огърлие на ордена “Свети Александръ”)
- Order of Saint Alexander, Grand Cross (Велик кръст на ордена “Свети Александръ”)

Czechoslovak Republic

- Order of the White Lion, Grand Cross with Collar (Velkokříž Řádu Bílého lva s kolonou)
- Czechoslovak War Cross 1918 (Československý válečný kříž 1918)

French Republic

- Order of the Legion of Honour, Grand Cross (Grand Croix de la Légion d’honneur) 
- Order of the Legion of Honour, Knight Cross (Croix de chevalier de la Légion d’honneur)
- Military Medal (Médaille militaire)
- War Cross 1914-1915 (Croix de guerre 1914-1915)
- War Cross 1914-1916 (Croix de guerre 1914-1916)
- War Cross 1914-1917 (Croix de guerre 1914-1917)
- War Cross 1914-1918 with a palm leaf (Croix de guerre 1914-1918 avec palme)
- Badge of the Association of Oriental Expeditionary Force Infantrymen (Insigne de l’Association des Poilus d’Orient)
- Honorary Sword presented to Crown Prince Alexander by French students /1916/

Great Britain

- Royal Victorian Order, Knight Grand Cross
- The Most Honourable Order of the Bath, Knight Grand Cross (Military Division)
- The Most Honourable Order of the Bath, Companion (Military Division)
- King George V Coronation Medal

Kingdom of Greece

- Order of the Redeemer, Grand Cross (Τάγμα του Σωτήρος, Μεγαλόσταυρος)
- Order of the Redeemer, Commander Cross (Τάγμα του Σωτήρος, Ταξιάρχης) 
- War Cross (Πολεμικός Σταυρός)

Kingdom of Italy

- Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus, Grand Cross (Gran Croce dell’Ordine dei Santi Maurizio e Lazzaro)
- Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation, Grand collar (Grande Collare dell’Ordine Supremo della Santissima Annunziata)
- Order of the Crown of Italy, Grand Cross (Gran Croce dell’Ordine della Corona d’Italia)
- Order of the Crown of Italy, Officer Cross (Ufficiale dell’Ordine della Corona d’Italia)
- War Merit Cross (Croce al Merito di Guerra)

Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem

- Order of the Holy Sepulchre, Grand Cross

Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin

- House Order of the Wendish Crown, Grand Cross with the Crown in Gold (Hausorden der Wendischen Krone, Großkreuz mit der Krone in Gold)

Kingdom of Montenegro

- Order of Prince Danilo I, Grand Cross (Орден Књаза Данила I, Велики крст)
- Order of Prince Danilo I, Knight Cross (Орден Књаза Данила I, Витешки крст)
- Order of Saint Peter of Cetinje (Орден Светог Петра Цетињског)
- Commemorative Medal of the 40th Anniversary of the King Nichola’s Reign (Медаља за спомен прославе четрдесетгодишње владавине књаза Николе I Петровића)
- Commemorative Medal of the 50th Anniversary of the King Nichola’s Reign (Медаља за спомен прославе педесетгодишње владавине књаза Николе I Петровића)

Ottoman Empire

- Order of Osmanie, 1st Class (1.Derece Osmani Nişan)
- Order of Medjidie, 1st Class (1.Derece Mecidi Nişan)
- Merit Medal (Nişan-ı İmtiyaz)

Republic of Peru

- Order of the Sun of Peru, Grand Cross with Diamonds (La Orden El Sol del Perú en el grado de Gran Cruz con brillantes)

Republic of Poland

- Order of the White Eagle (Order Orła Białego)
- Order of Rebirth of Poland, Grand Cross (Krzyż Wielki Orderu Odrodzenia Polski)
- War Order of Virtuti Militari, 1st Class (Krzyż Wielki z Gwiazdą Orderu Wojennego Virtuti Militari)
- Commemorative Badge of the Association of Polish Legionnaires, or Legionnaires’ Cross (Krzyż Legionowy)

Portuguese Republic

- Military Order of Our Lord Jesus Christ, Grand Cross (Ordem Militar de Nosso Senhor Jesus Cristo, Grã-Cruz)

Kingdom of Romania

- Order of Carol I, Grand Collar (Ordinul Carol I, Colan)
- Order of Michael the Brave, 1st Class (Ordinul Mihai Viteazul Clasa I-a)
- Order of Michael the Brave, 2nd Class (Ordinul Mihai Viteazul Clasa II-a)
- Order of Michael the Brave, 3rd Class (Ordinul Mihai Viteazul Clasa III-a)
- Order of the Crown of Romania, Grand Cross (Ordinul Coroana României în grad de Mare Cruce)
- Order of the Crown of Romania, Commander Cross (Ordinul Coroana României în grad de Comandor)
- Commemorative War Cross 1916-1918 (Crucea Comemorativă a Războiului 1916-1918)
- Commemorative Medal Peles (Medalia comemorativă Peleş)
- Regimental Badge of the 2nd Guard Light Infantry Regiment No.9 “Alexander I, King of Yugoslavia” (Insigna regimentala de 7 ani – Regimentul 2 Vânători de Gardă Nr.9 “Regele Alexandru I al Iugoslaviei”) /February 20, 1932/

Russian Empire

- Imperial Order of Saint Andrew the Apostle the First-Called (Императорский Орден Святого апостола Андрея Первозванного) /1913/
- Imperial Order of the most Orthodox Prince Saint Alexander Nevsky (Императорский Орден Святого Благоверного Князя Александра Невского)
- Order of the White Eagle (Орден Белого орла)
- Imperial Military Order of the Saint Great Martyr and the Triumphant George, 3rd Class (Императорский Военный орден Святого Великомученика и Победоносца Георгия 3-й степени) /1915/
- Imperial Military Order of the Saint Great Martyr and the Triumphant George, 4th Class (Императорский Военный орден Святого Великомученика и Победоносца Георгия 4-й степени) /1914/
- Imperial Order of Saint Anna, 1st Class (Императорский Орден Святой Анны 1-й степени)
- Imperial Order of Saint Anna, 2nd Class (Императорский Орден Святой Анны 2-й степени)
- Imperial and Tsarist Order of Saint Stanislaus, 1st Class (Императорский и Царский Орден Святого Станислава 1-й степени)
- Commemorative Medal for the Tercentenary of the Romanov Dynasty (Медаль “В память 300-летия царствования Дома Романовых”)
- Officer’s Badge of the 14th Olonets Infantry Regiment His Majesty King Peter I of Serbia (Знак 14-го пехотного Олонецкого Его Величества Короля Сербского Петра I полка для офицеров)
- Graduation Badge of the Corps of Cadets-Pages in Saint Petersburg (Знак об окончании Пажеского Кадетского Корпуса в Санкт-Петербурге) /1904/

Kingdom of Siam

- The Most Exalted Order of the White Elephant, Grand Cross (Khrueang Ratcha Itsariyaphon An Pen Thi Choet Chu Ying Chang Phueak, Prathamaphon Chang Phueak)

Kingdom of Serbia / Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes / Kingdom of Yugoslavia

- Order of the Star of Karađorđe with Swords, Grand Cross (Орден Карађорђеве звезде са мачевима првог реда – Велики крст)
- Order of the Star of Karađorđe with Swords, Grand Officer Cross (Орден Карађорђеве звезде са мачевима другог реда – Велики официр)
- Order of the Star of Karađorđe with Swords, Commander Cross (Орден Карађорђеве звезде са мачевима трећег реда – Командир)
- Order of the Star of Karađorđe with Swords, Knight Cross (Орден Карађорђеве звезде са мачевима четвртог реда – Кавалир)
- Order of the Star of Karađorđe, Grand Cross (Орден Карађорђеве звезде првог реда – Велики крст)
- Order of the Star of Karađorđe, Commander Cross (Орден Карађорђеве звезде трећег реда – Командир)
- Order of the White Eagle with Swords, Grand Cross (Орден Белог Орла са мачевима првог реда – Велики крст) 
- Order of the White Eagle with Swords, Commander Cross (Орден Белог Орла са мачевима трећег реда – Командир)
- Order of the White Eagle with Swords, Knight Cross (Орден Белог Орла са мачевима петог реда – Кавалир)
- Order of the White Eagle, Grand Cross (Орден Белог Орла првог реда – Велики крст)
- Order of the White Eagle, Commander Cross (Орден Белог Орла трећег реда – Командир)
- Order of the White Eagle, Officer Cross (Орден Белог Орла четвртог реда – Официр)
- Order of the Yugoslav Crown, Grand Cross (Орден Југословенске круне првог реда – Велики крст)
- Order of the Yugoslav Crown, Commander Cross (Орден Југословенске круне трећег реда – Командир)
- Order of the Yugoslav Crown, Officer Cross (Орден Југословенске круне четвртог реда – Официр)
- Order of Saint Sava, Grand Cross (Орден Светог Саве првог реда)
- Commemorative Medal of the Election of Peter I as King of Serbia and Comeback of the House of Karađorđević (Медаља за успомену на избор Петра I за краља Србије и повратак династије Карађорђевића)
- Gold Bravery Medal (Златна медаља за храброст)
- Commemorative Medal of the 1912 War (Kosovo Liberation Commemorative Medal) (Споменица на рат 1912 (Споменица за ослобођено Косово))
- Commemorative Cross of the 1913 War (Споменица на рат 1913)
- Cross of Charity (Крст милосрђа)
- The War for Liberation and Unification Commemorative Cross 1914-1918 (Споменица рата за ослобођење и уједињење 1914-1918)
- Commemorative Medal for the Withdrawal of the Serbian Army through Albania, a.k.a. Albanian Commemorative Medal (Медаља за спомен на повлачење српске војске преко Албаније (Албанска споменица))